С.Я. Никитина, М.В. Жесткова
для студентов I курса
кандидат педагогических наук
Самарский государственный университет путей сообщения
кандидат филологических наук
Самарский государственный медицинский университет
Английский язык : учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей. Часть 2. / С.Я. Никитина, М.В. Жесткова, – Самара : СамГУПС, 2011, - с.
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей дневной формы обучения. Цель данного пособия заключается в том, чтобы выработать у студентов навыки чтения, адекватного понимания и перевода текстов по специальности широкого профиля, а также активного владения основами грамматической системы современного английского языка.
© Никитина С.Я., 2011
© Жесткова М.В., 2011
© СамГУПС, 2011
Unit Three. From the History of Railways
Text AStockton-Darlington Railway
Text BLiverpool-Manchester Railway
Text CSt.Petersburg-Tsarskoe Selo Railway
Text DSt.Petersburg-Moscow Railway
Text EThe First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States
Text For Additional ReadingThe Great Train Robbery
Present, Past, Future Perfect Active and Passive
Functions of the Verb would
Unit Four. Modern Railways
Text AChannel Tunnel
Text BJapanese Railways
Text С Kuibyshev Railway
Text for Additional Reading Light Rail Arrives in the Lone Star State
Краткий грамматический справочник……………………………
Таблица неправильных глаголов…………………………………..
FROM THE HISTORY OF RAILWAYS
Ex. 1. Practice the reading of the words and phrases:
successfully, parliamentary, original, persuade, locomotive, architect, official, guest, uncomfortable, hour, however, prove, haul, typical, gradually, huge, financial;
wrought-iron rails, cast iron rails, to survey the line, to cover the distance, standard gauge, visiting dignitaries, signaling system, to prevent collision.
Ex. 2. Practice the reading of the proper names.
• George Stephenson [ʤɔ׃ʤ] ['sti׃vǝns(ǝ)n] – Джордж Стефенсон
• Edward Pease ['edwǝd] [pi׃z] – Эдвард Пиз
• Ignatius Bonomi [ɪg'neɪʃǝs] [bǝnǝ'mi׃] – Игнатий Бономи
• Darlington ['dɑ:lɪŋtǝn] – Дарлингтон
• Stockton ['stɔktǝn] – Стоктон
Ex. 3. To refresh your memory, translate the wordsinto Russian.
to attend, to allow, bridge, to call, carriage, construction, coach, to establish, to follow, fast, to include, market, to operate a locomotive, to provide, rail, to retire, to set up, structure, success.
Ex. 4. Copy the following words and phrases and memorize their meanings.
| 1. cast iron – чугун
2. coal mine – угольная шахта, рудник
3. expensive (≠ cheap) – дорогой, дорогостоящий (≠ дешёвый)
4. freight (= goods, load, cargo) – груз
5. gauge – ширина колеи
6. to carry (= to haul, to transport) – перевозить, транспортировать
7. to design – проектировать, конструировать
8. to draw (= to haul, to pull) – тянуть, тащить
9. to merge – объединяться (о компаниях)
10. to power – приводить в движение
power – сила, мощность, энергия, тяга
11. to prevent – предотвращать; мешать
12. to produce (= to manufacture) – производить, выпускать
production (=manufacture) – производство, выпуск
producer (= manufacturer) –(фирма)-производитель, поставщик
13. to prove – доказывать; оказываться
14. to reach – достигать, доходить; доезжать, добираться
15. steam – пар; паровой
16. to survey – проводить изыскания, производить разметку трассы ж.д.
17. traction (= power) – тяга
Ex. 13. Read the text and translate it into Russian.
Stockton & Darlington Railway (S&DR) was the world’s first railway to successfully use steam locomotives for carrying freight and passengers.
In 1821, a parliamentary bill was passed to allow the building of the S&DR. The 26-mile railway was to connect various coal mines. The original plan was to use horses to draw coal carts on cast iron rails. But George Stephenson, an English mechanical engineer, persuaded1 company director Edward Pease to use steam power. He said that a locomotive could pull 50 times the load that horses could draw on iron rails. Pease agreed to change his plan.
Stephenson surveyed the line in 1821, assisted by his 18-year-old son Robert. Work on the track began in 1822. Stephenson used wrought-iron rails instead of cast iron ones. These rails were more expensive but they were much stronger. On the 12-mile line connecting Stockton and Darlington, the rails were laid on wooden blocks. The 15-mile track between the mines and Darlington was laid on stone blocks. The gauge that Stephenson chose for the line was 4 feet 8½ inch (1,435 mm). Later, it became the standard gauge for railways not only in Britain but also all over the world.
The line’s structures included one of the first railway bridges. Designed by architect Ignatius Bonomi, the bridge over the Skerne river in Darlington is the oldest railway bridge still in use today.
Edward Pease and George Stephenson jointly established a company in Newcastle to manufacture locomotives for the new line. The company was set up as Robert Stephenson & Company, and George’s son Robert was the managing director2. In September 1825, the first locomotive originally named Active was completed; it was soon renamed Locomotion Number One. It was followed by Hope, Diligence, and Black Diamond.
The official opening of the line was on September 27, 1825. Large crowds saw George Stephenson operating the Locomotion as it pulled 36 wagons: twelve wagons of coal and flour, six of guests and fourteen wagons full of workmen. Most of the passengers sat in open coal wagons, but 18 visiting dignitaries3 traveled on the passenger carriage called The Experiment. This coach resembled a wooden shed4 on wheels and as it had no springs5 it must have provided an uncomfortable ride. The first train was not fast; it took two hours to cover the distance of 9 miles. However, on one section of the line the locomotive could reach a speed of 24 kmh.
For the first few years, horse traction dominated on the S&DR because steam traction was too expensive. But as time went on, steam locomotives proved to be more economic – they could haul more wagons, and haul them faster. In a typical working day the most expensive steam engine could haul more coal than the cheapest horse!
By 1833, the S&DR had become entirely steam-operated, and it gradually began to resemble a modern railway. Two parallel tracks were built for trains traveling in different directions. A simple signaling system was established to prevent collisions. Trains began to run to timetable. These methods of operation became standard on railways across the world.
The S&DR proved a huge financial success, and paved the way for modern rail transport. In 1863, the S&DR company merged with the North Eastern Railway and in 1922 with the London and North Eastern Railway. Much but not all of the original S&DR line is still operating today.
Notes: 1to persuade – убеждать;
2managing director – исполнительный директор;
3visiting dignitaries – высокопоставленные гости;
4shed – сарай;
5spring – рессора, пружина.
What was the original plan?
What was George Stephenson?
In the united states
Ex. 1. Practice the reading of the words and phrases:
intensify, technology, journey, completion, enormous, government, guarantee, enough, during, efficient, rarely, ceremony, crew, drawbridge, incredible;
Central Pacific Company, Union Pacific Company, plague-infected.
Text For Additional Reading
The Great Train Robbery
At 7 p.m. on August 7, 1963, the mail train departed from Glasgow Central Station. Its destination was Euston Station in London. The train was hauled by a diesel-electric locomotive. The train consisted of 12 carriages and carried 72 Post Office staff who sorted mail.
At Glasgow, the mail was loaded on the train. The second carriage behind the engine was used for transporting valuables including large quantities of money and registered parcels1. Usually the value of these things was about £300,000. But on the day of the robbery the sum total was £2.6 million (£30 million today).
At just after 3 a.m. the driver Jack Mills stopped the train at a red signal at Ledburn, a small station. He had no idea that the robbers had covered the green signal light and connected a six-volt battery to power the red signal light. The locomotive’s second man, 26-year-old David Whitby, climbed down from the cab to call the signalman from a signal-post2 telephone; but he found out that the cables had been cut. Upon returning to the train, he was thrown down the embankment of the railway track. The five postal workers in the second carriage were tied up.
The robbers (a 15 strong gang from London led by Bruce Reynolds) now faced a problem. They needed to move the train to a place where they could load the money onto their truck. They wanted to do so at a bridge half a mile further along the track. The gangsters decided to use an experienced train driver to move the train from the signals to the bridge after uncoupling the unnecessary carriages. However, the person they selected was unable to operate mainline diesel locomotives because he only drove shunting locomotives. It was quickly decided that Jack Mills himself should move the train to the stopping point near the bridge. Initially, Mills did not want to move the train, but one of the gangsters struck him on the head.
At the bridge, the robbers unloaded 124 sacks, which they transferred quickly from the carriage to the truck by forming a human chain. The gang departed 30 minutes after the robbery had begun. To mislead any potential witness in addition to their truck they used two Land Rover vehicles both of which had the registration plates BMG 757 A.
They headed along back roads and arrived at an old farm 27 miles from the crime scene. They had bought this farm two months earlier. There they began counting the proceeds of the robbery. 2.6 million pounds were stolen in used £1, £5 and £10 notes.
Investigation, capture and trial
At 5 a.m. the police arrived at the crime scene where they took statements from the driver and postal workers. One member of the gang had made the mistake of telling the postal staff not to move for half an hour, so their hideout could not be more than 35 miles away. The police did a search of all places near the crime scene, but failed to find any evidence of the crime.
The Postmaster General3 offered a £10,000 reward to “the first person giving information about the persons responsible for the robbery”. Finally, the old farm was found where the policemen discovered the truck used by the robbers, the Land Rovers, a large quantity of food, bedding, sleeping bags, Post Office sacks, registered parcels, and fingerprints of the robbers.
Thirteen of the gang members were arrested. The trial of the robbers began on January 20, 1964, lasted 51 days and included 613 exhibits and 240 witnesses. On April 15, 1964, the sentences of 30 years imprisonment were passed on seven members of the gang. Others received shorter sentences.
Notes:1registered parcel – ценная посылка;
2signal post – светофорная мачта;
3Postmaster General – министр почт.
Ex. 4. Answer the questions to the text.
1. Where and when did The Great Train Robbery take place?
2. What station did the mail train depart? What was its destination?
3. What did post staff do?
4. Was anything special about the second carriage behind the locomotive?
5. Why did the driver Jack Mills stop the train at a red signal?
6. What did the locomotive’s second man do?
7. What did he discover?
8. What happened to David Whitby upon his returning to the train?
9. What happened to the postal workers?
10. How strong was the gang?
11. Were they from Glasgow?
12. Was an experienced train driver able to operate a mainline diesel locomotive?
13. Who was to move the train to the bridge?
14. Did he want to do that?
15. What did the robbers do at the bridge?
16. What did they do to mislead the police?
17. Where was the robbers’ hideout?
18. Was any reward offered to the first person giving information about the persons responsible for the robbery?
19. How many gang members were arrested?
20. What sentences were passed on the robbers?
Ex. 1. Give the third form of the verbs. Mind the reading of the -ed ending.
to operate, to have, to be, to find, to consist, to carry, to do, to make, to tell, to use, to think, to write, to give, to design, to see, to go, to transport, to increase, to come, to pull, to begin, to become, to offer, to call, to take, to control, to send, to draw, to reach, to know, to say, to construct, to build.
In the U.S., the first steam locomotive, the Stourbridge Lion, (to make – Past Simple Active) a trial trip in Pennsylvania in 1829.
On the day of a test trip, a lot of people (to come – Past Simple Active) to the small Pennsylvania town to see the first run of the steam locomotive. The driver (not to let – Past Simple Active) anyone ride with him because the locomotive (not to test – Past Perfect Passive) before. The signal to start (to give – Past Simple Passive) and the wheels (to begin – Past Simple Active) to turn slowly.
A horseman (to go – Past Continuous Active) in front of the locomotive and (to shout – Past Continuous Active) that the train (to come – Past Continuous Active). People on horses and in carriages (to ride – Past Continuous Active) near the train. All along the route, men (to wave – Past Continuous Active) their hats and boys (to cheer1 – Past Continuous Active) as the Lion (to thunder2– Past Continuous Active) past.
When they (to go – Past Perfect Active) for some time, Allen, who (to operate – Past Continuous Active) his locomotive, (to ask – Past Simple Active) the horseman to go away. He (to put – Past Simple Active) steam on and (to run – Past Simple Active) his locomotive at a fantastic speed of 12 miles per hour. Who would have believed that anything so big could move so fast without a horse to pull it!
But the locomotive (to be – Past Simple Active) too heavy for the track and the trip (not to repeat – Past Simple Passive).
Notes: 1to cheer – кричать "Ура";
2to thunder – зд: проходить (проезжать) с грохотом.
1. Was the first steam locomotive tested in 1829?
2. Did many people come to see the first run of the steam locomotive?
3. Was the steam locomotive called the Stourbridge Tiger?
4. Had the locomotive been tested before that historic run?
5. Were there any passengers on this train?
6. Did the driver let his mate ride with him?
7. Were men waving their hats as the Lion was thundering past?
8. Was the Lion moving at a speed of twelve miles an hour?
9. Was the steam locomotive pulled by a horse?
10. Was the trip repeated?
Ex. 1. Practice the reading of the words and phrases:
consortium, company, simultaneously, combine, removal, process, bury, alphanumeric, while, cubic, almost, chalk, excavate, diameter, passage, escape, during, emergency, underneath, containerized, society, wonder, regular;
unheard-of engineering challenge, unprecedented project, concrete liner.
Ex. 2. Practice the reading of the proper names.
• La Manche [lɑ:'mɑ:nʃ] – Ла-Манш (пролив)
• Paris ['pærɪs] – Париж
• Calais ['kæleɪ] – Кале (город, порт на севере Франции)
• Brussels ['brʌslz] – Брюссель (столица Бельгии)
• Catherine ['kæθərɪn] – Кэтрин
• Elizabeth [ɪ'lɪzəbəθ] – Элизабет
Since 1802 there have been various proposals to connect the British and French coasts separated by the English Channel (or La Manche as they call it in France). For several reasons, these proposals were rejected. Only in the late 1980s, it became possible to realize the dearest wish of the Europeans.
Tunneling between England and France was a major engineering challenge. Fifteen thousand workers were employed to accomplish this unprecedented project.
The prime contractor for the construction was the Anglo-French TransManche Link, a consortium of 10 construction companies and 5 banks of the two countries. Tunneling started in 1988 and lasted for two years.
Tunneling operations were conducted simultaneously from the French and British coasts. The tunnelling companies were Graham Fagg of the United Kingdom and Philippe Cozette of France, and they achieved a tunneling rate of 426 m in one week. A total of 7 million tons of spoil were excavated.
Engineers used large tunnel boring machines (TBMs) that combined drilling, material removal, and the process of shoring up the soft tunnel walls with a concrete liner. The French side used five tunnel boring machines, the English side used six. In contrast to the English machines, which were simply given alphanumeric1 names, the French tunneling machines were all named after women: Brigitte, Europa, Catherine, Virginie, Pascaline, Séverine.
In December 1990, the French and British TBMs met in the middle. Later, the French TBM was dismantled while the UK TBM was simply turned aside and abandoned2.
The tunnel was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II and French President François Mitterrand in a ceremony held in Calais (France) on May 6, 1994. But it did not go into full operation until December 1994.
The Channel Tunnel consists of three parallel tunnels:
• two 7.6-metre diameter rail tunnels, 30 metres apart, 50 kilometres in length;
• a 4.8-metre diameter service tunnel between the two main tunnels. By means of passages, it is connected to the main tunnels at regular intervals. It allows maintenance workers to access the tunnel complex and provides a safe route for escape during emergencies.
The Channel Tunnel is one of the world’s most famous tunnels. It is 50 km long, of which 39 m are undersea. The average depth is 45 m underneath the seabed.
Four types of train services operate on the Tunnel:
• Eurostar, a high speed passenger service. This connects London with Paris and Brussels.
• Eurotunnel shuttle trains. These carry cars, coaches, and vans; passengers stay with their vehicles. It takes about eight minutes to roll the vehicle onto the railcar.
• Eurotunnel freight shuttle trains. These carry trucks on open railcars, with the lorry drivers traveling in separate passenger coaches. Freight shuttles can carry 28 automobiles.
• Eurotunnel freight trains. These trains carry conventional rail freight or containerized freight between Great Britain and the Continent.
In 2008, over 9 million passengers traveled through the tunnel on Eurostar and 7 million people on shuttle trains.
Rail freight carried through the Channel Tunnel was over 15 million tons in 2008.
A journey through the tunnel by Eurostar lasts about 20 minutes; a shuttle train journey totals about 35 minutes. Each train travels at 130 km/h when under the sea.
The construction of the Channel Tunnel was not only an unheard-of engineering challenge but also one of the most expensive projects – the total costs were around £10 billion.
The American Society of Civil Engineers has declared the tunnel to be one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World.
Notes: 1alphanumeric – алфавитно-цифровой;
2was turned aside and abandoned – зд: отвезли подальше от тоннеля и забросили.
Ex. 1. Practice the reading of the words and phrases:
privatize, proportion, group, to organize, nationwide, widely, nearly, however, beyond, previously, literally, originally, metropolis, frequency;
government-owned Japanese National Railways, Japan Freight Railway Company, prescribed geographic area, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japanese geographical region, metropolitan areas.
Ex. 10. (A) Look up the following adverbs in a dictionary.
| approximately frequently literally nearly
originally previously slowly widely
(B) Read the sentences and translate them.
1. In the past, the word ‘engineer’ literally meant ‘a designer of engines’.
2. The journey took approximately seven hours.
3. Work on the new railroad is progressing slowly.
4. Buses run frequently between the city and the airport.
5. The island was originally circular in shape.
6. They build roads into previously remote areas.
7. Reinforced concrete (железобетон) and steel are widely used now for the construction of modern bridges.
8. Nearly all goods traffic went by train.
(C) Complete the sentences with a required adverb.
1. Industrial robots perform tasks that were ___ done by human operators.
2. ___ we had planned a tour of Italy, but then we won the trip to Greece.
3. Passengers complain that trains are ___ delayed.
4. The airplane will be landing in ___ 20 minutes.
5. The Olympic Games were watched by ___ billions of people.
6. ___ all the passengers got off the train at the previous station.
7. New plastic and synthetic materials are ___ used for the interior and exterior finishing of carriages.
8. Can you speak more ___? I can’t understand what you're saying.
9. ___, we had planned a tour of Scotland but we didn’t go in the end.
10. The name of the cheese is Dolcelatte, ___ meaning ‘sweet milk’.
In 1987, the government of Japan took the decision to divide and privatize Japanese National Railways. Most of the government-owned Japanese National Railways was taken by the Japan Railways Group (JR Group).
The JR Group lies at the heart of Japan’s railway network, operating a large proportion of intercity rail service (including the Shinkansen high-speed rail lines) and commuter rail service.
The group consists of seven operating companies and two other companies that do not provide rail service. The operating companies are organized into six passenger operators and a nationwide freight operator.
The six passenger railways of the JR Group are separated by regions. Nearly all their services are within the prescribed1 geographic area. However, some long-distance operations extend beyond the boundaries2. The Shirasagi train service between Nagoya and Toyama, for example, uses JR West rolling stock but the section of track between Nagoya and Maibara is owned by JR Central, whose crew runs the train on that section.
Japan Freight Railway Company operates all freight service on the network previously owned by JNR. Japan Freight Railway Company owns its locomotives, rolling stock and stations, but leases track from the six passenger companies.
In addition, the group includes two non-operating companies3. These are the Railway Technical Research Institute and Railway Information Systems Co., Ltd.
The Shinkansen is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies.
Shinkansen literally means ‘new trunk line’, but the name is widely used inside and outside Japan; it refers not only to the trains but to the railway system as a whole.
The Tokaido Shinkansen is the world’s busiest high-speed rail line. The Tokaido was originally an old Japanese geographical region in the south-east of Honshu; its name literally means ‘Eastern sea way’. The term also refers to a series of roads that connect the capitals of each of the 15 provinces in that region.
The Tokaido Shinkansen, connecting Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka, was inaugurated in 1964 as the first Shinkansen line and the world’s first high speed train service. At that time the trains already ran at about 200 kmh. Nowadays they reach speeds of 300 kmh. In 2003, test runs reached 443 kmh for maglev trainsets.
Carrying 151 million passengers a year (March 2008), it has transported more passengers (over 6 billion) than any other high speed line in the world. Tokyo and Osaka are the two largest metropolises in Japan. Ten trains with 16 cars each (1,300 seating capacity) run in each direction with minimum 3 minutes frequency. Being a long-distance transport system, the Shinkansen also serves commuters who travel to work in metropolitan areas from remote cities.
The trains operating on the Tokaido Shinkansen are of the following three categories:
• Nozomi (‘hope’): Nozomi trains stop only at the most important stations, and cover the distance between Osaka and Tokyo (over 500 km) in about two and a half hours.
• Hikari (‘light’): Hikari trains stop a little bit more frequently than Nozomi trains, and need approximately three hours to reach Osaka from Tokyo.
• Kodama(‘echo’): The slowest category. Kodama trains stop at all stations.
Notes:1prescribed – установленный, определённый;
2to extend beyond the boundaries – выйти за границы;
3non-operating company – арендная компания (сдающая все свои предприятия
или иное имущество в аренду).
Ex. 14. Translate the following texts to answer the question: Which trains do (A), (B), (C) refer to?
A. ♦ is the fastest train service running on the Tokaido-Sanyo Shinkansen in Japan. The service stops at only the largest stations. ♦ services using 500 series and N700 series equipment reach speeds of 186 mph. The trip between Tokyo and Osaka, a distance of 515 kilometers, takes 2 hours 26 minutes on the fastest ♦. The word ♦ in Japanese means ‘hope’ or ‘wish’.
B. ♦♦ is one of the three train services running on the Tokaido-Sanyo Shinkansen. ♦♦ trains stop at all stations, making ♦♦ the slowest Shinkansen service for trips between major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. The ♦♦ trains are used primarily for travel to and from smaller cities such as Atami. Travelers between major cities generally take the ♦ services, which make fewer stops. The Japanese word ♦♦ means ‘echo’. It was originally a name of limited express trains on the conventional Tokaido Main Line, which was discontinued by the inauguration of the Shinkansen in 1964.
C. ♦♦♦ is the name of a high-speed train service running on the Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen ‘bullet train’ lines in Japan. Slower than the ♦ but faster than the ♦♦, the ♦♦♦ is very popular among travelers. The word ♦♦♦ means ‘light’ in Japanese.
The Kuibyshev Railway is among the country’s largest mainlines. It links European Russia with the economically vital regions of the Urals and Middle Asia. It runs across three republics (Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and Mordovia) and seven regions (Ryazan, Penza, Tambov, Chelyabinsk, Ulyanovsk and Samara).
The Kuibyshev Railway is one of the oldest Russian railways. Its history dates back to the Morshansk-Syzran line put into operation in 1874. This line was 485 versts (about 520 km) long; it operated 42 steam locomotives, 47 Morse apparatus, 530 freight carriages, 52 passenger cars and 15 baggage cars.
In 1875, the decision was taken to span the Volga River by a bridge at Syzran, a town 40 km from Samara. Nikolay Apollonovich Belelyubskiy, an outstanding Russian scientist and bridge engineer was in charge of construction works. The special importance of the bridge was that this was the only rail link between Central Russia, on the one hand, and Siberia and Turkestan, on the other. As bridge construction was a matter of national importance it was personally supervised by Tsar Alexander the Second. 7 million gold roubles were spent to carry out the project.
The inauguration of the bridge took place on August 30, 1880. Until 1919, its official name was Alexander Bridge. For a long period of time, it was a unique engineering structure – the 1.5 km girder bridge1 had 13 spans 110 meters each. Since 1957, railway traffic has been carried on the double-track line.
These days, the Kuibyshev Railway as a branch of RZD JSC (Joint-Stock Company) provides sustainable development2 of the Volga-Urals economic region. It has five divisions: Samara, Ruzaevka, Penza, Ulyanovsk, Bashkiria. The operating length of the mainline is 11.5 thousand km (the total length of the Russian railways is 85 thousand km), 7.2 thousand km are main-line tracks. There are over 330 stations, including six marshalling yards. The railway operates 23 locomotive and car depots to maintain and repair rolling stock.
Freight traffic is a top priority for the Kuibyshev Railway. Among the most important goods transported are oil and oil products, chemicals, timber, cement, construction materials, automobiles, etc. Annually, over 60 mln tons of freight is carried by the Kuibyshev Railway. The introduction of advanced technologies into rail industry ensures safe and timely delivery of goods.
More than 30 mln people are transported by our railway every year. Passenger traffic is provided by long-distance trains, including named trains, as well as by local trains. Electrical multiple-unit trains (EMUs) are very popular among people living on the territory served by the Kuibyshev Railway. Every year, 25 million people travel by commuter trains.
Notes: 1girder bridge – мост с балочным пролётным строением;
2sustainable development – устойчивое развитие.
Text For Additional Reading
Ex. 1. Listen to the tape and imitate the speaker as best as you can. After that, translate the text, consulting a dictionary as little as possible.
Light Rail1 Arrives in the Lone Star State
The first stage of Dallas light rail network was inaugurated in June 1997. Marching bands, balloons, free rides created a lively atmosphere in Dallas, when the city and its surrounding region celebrated the Grand Opening of the first modern light rail line in Texas. The ceremonies2 were held in the city centre as well as at all 14 stations along the initial 16 km route.
More than 4,000 local officials and citizens from across the region gathered in temperatures of over +37° С to witness the opening of the light rail.
The Grand Opening, a five-day period of public celebrations, included a gala dinner, art program and parties at eight of the fourteen stations. Thanks to sponsorship from over 80 corporations, passengers were also able to ride free of charge for the whole of the following week in a "Try-it-you'll-like-it" campaign. The biggest sponsors were recognized with their names on some of the cars exteriors.
Approximately 8,600 passengers rode the light rail line on the first afternoon. Regular commercial services began on June 24. The standard fares are $1 for a single ticket and $2 for a return ticket, apart from the city centre zone where there is a 50 cent single ticket. Different discounts are proposed (e.g. passengers can buy 11 tickets for the price of 10, and there is also a “day pass” offering unlimited travel on light rail and bus services for just $3 a day).
Dallas light rail network has purchased 40 Light Rail Vehicles (LRV). Able to accommodate 160 passengers each, the cars have a top speed of 105km/h. The air-conditioned LRVs can operate singly or in trains of up to three depending on demand. Traffic frequency on the city centre section is 5 minutes and 10 minutes during the peak hours and off-peak hours respectively.
Capital Program of the Dallas light rail network development envisages construction of additional light rail and commuter rail routes over the next 15 years, creating a 145 km network by 2010.
Notes: 1light rail – наземное метро;
2ceremonies – праздничные мероприятия.
Ex. 2. Mark the following statements as ‘True’ or ‘False’. Correct the false statements without consulting the text.
1. The second stage of Dallas intercity rail network was inaugurated in July 1997.
2. Less than 4,000 local officials and citizens from Dallas gathered in temperatures of over +27° С to witness the opening of the heavy rail.
3. The length of the first section of the light rail was 14 km and the stations were located at a distance of 3 km apart.
4. When the city celebrated the Grand Opening of the first light rail line in Texas, a gala dinner, art program and parties were held at eight stations.
5. Public celebrations lasted seven days.
6. About 8,600 passengers rode the light rail line on the first afternoon.
7. More than 80 public organizations sponsored the construction of the light rail.
8. The names of all the sponsors were written on some of the cars exteriors.
9. A "Try-it-you’ll-like-it" campaign was organized to attract more passengers to the light rail.
10. Passengers were able to travel by rail free of charge for the whole month.
11. Regular commercial services began on June 24, 1998.
12. A single ticket cost $1 apart from the city centre zone where the standard fare was $2.
13. Passengers could buy a "day pass" and rode by rail and bus for just $3.
14. Forty light rail vehicles operated on the Dallas light rail network.
15. Each LRV was able to accommodate 260 passengers.
16. The average speed of trains was 105 kmh.
17. LRVs could operate singly or in trains of up to three depending on demand.
18. Some LRVs were equipped with air-conditioning system.
19. Traffic frequency on the city centre section was 5 minutes.
20. According to the program of the Dallas light rail development, the length of the whole network will be 145 km.
Ex. 1. Read the sentences and translate them, paying attention to the Gerund. State the syntactic function of the Gerund.
1. Laying rails took much time before the invention of a track-laying machine.
2. Developing high-speed services by using trains capable of traveling at up to 250-300 km/h is one of the priority tasks of Russian Railways.
3. A porter is a person whose job is carrying people’s bags and other loads, especially at a railway station, an airport or in a hotel.
4. I don’t understand why the machine stopped working.
5. Suddenly, the engine began making a strange noise.
6. Automatic control system makes the driver’s work easier, allows reducing the train crew, and ensures high degree of safety.
7. I can’t insist on your staying a little longer as you risk missing the last train.
8. Research has focused on improving the car’s aerodynamics.
9. In 1996, several Asian countries established the Pan-Asian railway organization with the aim of uniting their individual railways into a continuous network.
10. The method of controlling the movement of all trains on a line from a central point is called Centralized Traffic Control.
11. In Russia, many people had doubts (сомневаться) about the possibility of using steam locomotives in winter.
12. Before putting the new trains into operation, the engineers are to test them on а specially built track.
13. On entering the compartment, a man introduced himself to his fellow travelers.
14. Passengers get access to the Metro platform by passing through turnstiles that require payment.
15. As all the railways in Britain have a standard gauge now, passengers are able to travel over several lines without changing trains.
16. The first steps in designing automatic engine driver for heavy high-speed trains were made in the 1960s.
17. Fences and other devices are built for protecting the tracks against snow and for keeping the livestock away from the railway.
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences with a required Gerund. Verbs given in the box below may be helpful to you.
1. The number of workers was minimized after ___ the new equipment.
2. The motor has broken from ___.
3. Freight trains are loaded and unloaded in freight yards by ___ cranes.
4. Snow prevented workers from ___ the broken pipeline.
5. Automatic train signaling (автоматические устройства сигнализации) is a system used for ___ railway traffic to prevent trains from ___.
6. ___ fuel supply caused serious trouble in the engine.
7. Diesel locos are able to work for a long time without ___.
8. Engineers are trying to find the ways of the ___ cost of ___ railways.
9. Having worked at the railway for several years, Paul gained much experience (опыт) in ___ electric locomotives.
10. Automatic ticket-vending machines have been developed for ___ passengers’ service at railway stations.
| to collide to control to decrease to drive
to electrify to improve to install to overheat
to reach to refuel to stop to use
Причастие является неличной формой глагола. В английском языке существует два вида причастий: Participle I и Participle II.
(A) Простое причастие настоящего времени
Participle I Simple
Образуется путём прибавления окончания -ing к основе глагола (to increase – increasing;to supply – supplying).
Participle I Simple может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:
часть составного сказуемого в Continuous
The passengers are waiting for the train arrival.
Пассажиры ждут прибытия поезда.
General Motors is a famous companyproducing automobiles.
General Motors – известная компания,выпускающая автомобили.
While traveling around the country, he saw many interesting things.
Путешествуя по стране, он видел много интересного.
(1) Причастие I в функции определения находится либо перед определяемым словом, либо после него. Переводится на русский язык причастиями, оканчивающимся на -ущий/-ющий, -ащий/-ящий [делающий, бегущий, говорящий] или причастиями, оканчивающимся на -вший,когда глагол-сказуемое стоит в прошедшем времени [делавший, бежавший, говоривший].
(2) Причастие I в функции обстоятельства стоит в начале предложения, в середине предложения после запятой или после союзов while, when. Переводится на русский язык деепричастием несовершенного вида, оканчивающимся на -а/-я [делая, рассказывая, устанавливая].
Если перед причастием I в функции обстоятельства ставится союз while или when, то такие предложения можно перевести несколькими способами:
While translating the article the student consulted the dictionary. – Переводя статью, студент пользовался словарём. Когдастудент переводил статью, он пользовался словарём. При переводестатьи студент пользовался словарём.
(3) Participle I не всегда имеет эквивалентное деепричастие в русском языке; в таких случаях оно переводится придаточным предложением. Writinga letter, I am… – Когда я пишуписьмо, …
(B) Перфектное причастие настоящего времени
Participle I Perfect
Образуется при помощи вспомогательного глаголаtohave и III формы основного глагола (to buy – having bought; to ask – having asked).
Participle I Perfect выражает действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым. Оно обычно находится в начале предложения. Переводится на русский язык деепричастием совершённого вида [сделав, рассказав, прибежав]. В предложении выполняет функцию обстоятельства.
Having introduced new technology, the enterprise greatly increased output. – Внедрив новую технологию, предприятие значительно увеличило выпуск продукции.
(C) Причастие прошедшего времени
Participle II правильных глаголов образуется путём прибавления окончания -ed к основе глагола (to train – trained, to work – worked, to last – lasted). Формы Participle II неправильных глаголов указаны в таблице нестандартных глаголов (to write – written, to build – built).
Participle II может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:
часть составного глагольного сказуемого в Passive и Perfect
Computers areusedin many fields of science and technology.
The company hasdeveloped a new model of equipment.
Компьютеры используются во многих областях науки и техники.
Компания разработала новую модель оборудования.
They agreed to the designworked out by our engineer.
Они согласились с проектом,разработанным(=который был разработан) нашим инженером.
Though overstressed, the machine kept on running.
When burned, coal produces heat.
Несмотря на перегрузку, машина продолжала работать.
При горении угля выделяется тепло.
(1) Participle II в функции определения находится либо перед определяемым словом, либо после него. Переводится на русский язык причастиями с окончаниями -мый, -ный, -тый [сделанный, используемый, вымытый].
(2) Participle II в функции обстоятельства находится в начале предложения, часто после союзов when когда,ifесли,though хотя, несмотря на, provided если, при условии, что, unlessесли не и переводится на русский языкпридаточным предложением или существительным с предлогом.
Герундий – неличная форма глагола, сочетающая грамматические особенности глагола и существительного. Герундий образуется путём прибавления к основе глагола окончания -ing. В русском языке соответствующей формы нет, поэтому герундий может переводиться существительным, глаголом, деепричастием или придаточным предложением.
Герундий может выполнять в предложении следующие функции:
Flying is better for long journeys but traveling by rail is much more interesting.
На длинные расстояния лучше летать самолётом, а путешествовать по железной дороге намного интереснее.
часть составного именного сказуемого
The main purpose of the project is reducing power consumption.
They finished installing the apparatus only on Sunday.
Основной целью проекта является уменьшение энергозатрат.
Они завершили установку оборудования только в воскресенье.
The engineer has suggested developing new devices for measuring these values.
Fog prevented the plane from landing at this airport.
Инженер предложил разработать новые приборы дляизмерения этих величин.
Туман помешал самолёту совершить посадкув этом аэропорту.
There are several ways of reducing power consumption.
The cost of repairing this equipment is very high.
Существует много способов сократить расход энергии.
Стоимость ремонта этого оборудования очень высока.
instead of reading
in (by) reading
вместо того чтобы читать;
после того как прочитал;
до того как прочитал;
в то время как читал;
для того чтобы читать;
после того как прочитал.
Для определения функции герундия важно знать его место в предложении:
(1) герундий в функции подлежащего находится в начале предложения, перед ним не может быть предлога. Переводится существительным или инфинитивом.
(2) герундий в функции именной части составного сказуемого находится после глаголов to start, to begin, to continue, to go on, to finish или после глагола-связки to be. Переводится существительным или инфинитивом.
(3) герундий в функции дополнения находится после сказуемого. Переводится существительным, инфинитивом или придаточным предложением.
(4) герундий в функции определения употребляется с предлогом of (иногда for), находится после определяемого слова. Переводится существительным или инфинитивом.
(5) герундий в функции обстоятельства употребляется с предлогами (before, after, on, by, instead of, in, without), находится в начале или конце предложения.Переводится существительным с предлогом, деепричастием, придаточным предложением.
§ 3. Функции слов с окончанием -ing в предложении
Combining work and study isn’t easy.
Совмещать работу и учебу нелегко.
часть составного глагольного сказуемого
The train was moving at a top speed.
Поезд двигался на предельной скорости.
часть составного именного сказуемого
Their aim was increasing the engine power.
Их целью было повышение мощности двигателя.
The engineer insisted on testing a new device once more.
Инженер настоял на том, чтобы испытать новый прибор ещё раз.
The cost of transporting passengers and freight can be reduced by increasing the weight and length of trains.
The railway linkingthe airport with the railway terminal was constructed two years ago.
Стоимость перевозки пассажиров и грузов можно уменьшить путём увеличения массы и длины составов.
Железная дорога, соединяющая аэропорт и железнодорожный вокзал, была построена 2 года назад.
A crane is the mechanical device used for lifting freight.
The scientists processed the obtained data, using the new computer program.
Подъёмный кран – это механическое устройство, используемое для поднятия грузов.
Ученые обработали полученные данные, используя новую компьютерную программу.
Являясь неличной формой глагола, инфинитив имеет свойства существительного и глагола. Признаком инфинитивом является частица to.