Applications of biotechnology in different areas — КиберПедия 

Папиллярные узоры пальцев рук - маркер спортивных способностей: дерматоглифические признаки формируются на 3-5 месяце беременности, не изменяются в течение жизни...

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Applications of biotechnology in different areas



МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН

ЮЖНО-КАЗАХСТАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Им. .М.АУЕЗОВА

 

 

Кафедра Биотехнология

 

 

Джакашева М.А., Джантасова А.А.

 

Методические указания по практическим занятиям

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере»

 

 

(5В070100 – для студентов Биотехнологических специальностей)

 

Contents

 

1-2 practical lesson What is biotechnology?
3-4 practical lesson History of biotechnology
5-6 practical lesson Applications of biotechnology in different areas
7-8 practical lesson Objects of biotechnology
9-10 practical lesson Microscopy: The Instruments
11-12 practical lesson The prokaryotic cell
13-14 practical lesson Identify the three basic shapes of bacteria
15 practical lesson The eukaryotic cell
16-17 practical lesson The evolution of eukaryotes
18-20 practical lesson Microbial metabolism
21-23 practical lesson Enzymes and chemical reactions
24-26 practical lesson Photosynthesis
27-29 practical lesson A nutritional classification of organisms
30-32 practical lesson Physical requirements for growth of microorganisms
33-35 practical lesson Chemical requirements for growth of microorganisms
36-38 practical lesson Fermentation technology
39-41 practical lesson Application of microorganisms in food industry
42-44 practical lesson The commercial microbial products
45 practical lesson Biotechnology and future
Glossary  
Literature  

 

УДК _____________

 

Составители: Джакашева М.А., Джантасова А.А.

Методическое пособие для практических занятий по предмету «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» ЮКГУ им.М.Ауезова, 2012 – 55 стр.

 

 

Методическое пособие предназначено для студентов ІІІ курсов очного и заочного обучения, специальностей 050701 «Биотехнология»

 

 

Рецензенты:

Муталиева Б.Ж. к.х.н., ст.преподаватель кафедры

«Биотехнология»

 

 

Рассмотрено на заседании кафедры от №1 « 28 » 08 2012 г.

 

 

комиссией Химико-технологического факультета

Протокол № от « 29» 082012 г.

 

 

© ЮКГУ имени М.Ауезова, 2012

 

1-2 Practical lesson. Present Simple

 

Positive and negative

I We You They live don’t live   near here
He She It lives doesn’t lives

 

 

  Where do I We You They   live  
does He She It

 

Present Simple is used to express:

1. a habit.

I get up at 7.30.

Cinda smokes too much.

2. a fact which is always true.

Vegetarians don’t eat meat.

We come from Spain.

3. a fact which is true for a long time.

I live in Oxford.

She works in a bank.

 

Read and translate the text about biotechnology.

 

 

What is Biotechnology?

 

Biotechnology in one form or another has flourished since prehistoric times. When the first human beings realized that they could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology. The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnology. When the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists. The first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.



What then is biotechnology? The term brings to mind many different things. Some think of developing new types of animals. Others dream of almost unlimited sources of human therapeutic drugs. Still others envision the possibility of growing crops that are more nutritious and naturally pest-resistant to feed a rapidly growing world population. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as:"Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use." In other terms: «The industrial application of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a useful product" is biotechnology.

In its purest form, the term "biotechnology" refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and the human environment. Prehistoric biotechnologists did this as they used yeast cells to raise bread dough and to ferment alcoholic beverages, and bacterial cells to make cheeses and yogurts and as they bred their strong, productive animals to make even stronger and more productive offspring.

Throughout human history, we have learned a great deal about the different organisms that our ancestors used so effectively. The marked increase in our understanding of these organisms and their cell products gains us the ability to control the many functions of various cells and organisms. Using the techniques of gene splicing and recombinant DNA technology, we can now actually combine the genetic elements of two or more living cells. Functioning lengths of DNA can be taken from one organism and placed into the cells of another organism. As a result, for example, we can cause bacterial cells to produce human molecules. Cows can produce more milk for the same amount of feed. And we can synthesize therapeutic molecules that have never before existed.

 

Vocabulary

Biotechnology, science, technique, cell, microorganism, yeast, DNA, gene, bacterial cell, animals, breed, growing crops, therapeutic drugs, ferment.

Task. Recognizing tenses

Complete the texts using the verbs in the box.

 

Can make ’s studying lives teaches wants loves doesn’t have

 

Enrique (1)______ in Puebla6 a town in Mexico. He’s a student. He (2) ______medicine because he (3)______to be a doctor. He’s married, but he (4) any children. His wife, Silvia, (5)______in a primary school. Enrique (6)_____ cooking. He (7)_____ an excellent cook.

 

 

Has like come live ’re listening ’m sitting ’m going to study doesn’t work

 

Hi! My name’s Rumi and I (1)_____from Osaka in Japan. I (2)_____with my parents. My father (3)_____ a business, but my mother (4)_____. Next year I (5)_____economics at university. I (6)_____going out with my friends. In the picture I (7)_____in a bar with Noriko and Toshi. We (8)_____to music.

 

 

’re playing emigrated didn’t like have ’re going went live was born

Bruce is Australian. He (1)_____ in England, but he (2)_____ to Australia when he was six. He (3)_____ back to England once, but he (4)_____it because it was so cold after Australia! He and his brother (5)_____with their parents in Melbourne. They (6)_____a big house not far from the beach. In the picture he’s on the beach with his friends. They (7)_____volleyball. Tonight he’s going out with his girlfriend. They (8)_____ to the cinema.



 

3-4 Practical lesson

 

Read and translate the text about history of biotechnology.

 

History of biotechnology

 

Through early biotechnology, farmers were able to select the best suited crops, having the highest yields, to produce enough food to support a growing population. Later other cultures produced the process of lactic acid fermentation which allowed the fermentation and preservation of other forms of food. Fermentation was also used in this time period to produce leavened bread. Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Pasteur's work in 1857, it is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into another form.

For thousands of years, humans have used selective breeding to improve production of crops and livestock to use them for food. For example, this technique was used with corn to produce the largest and sweetest crops. In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products. In 1917, Chaim Weizmann first used a pure microbiological culture in an industrial process, that of manufacturing corn starch using Clostridium acetobutylicum, to produce acetone, which the United Kingdom desperately needed to manufacture explosives during World War I.

Biotechnology has also led to the development of antibiotics. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the mold Penicillium. In 1940, penicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections in humans.

Vocabulary

Select, lactic acid fermentation, leavened bread, selective breeding, microbiological culture, antibiotic, explore, mold, development, microbiology, to treat bacterial infections.

 

Task.Choosing the correct form.

Choose the correct form of the verb.

1. I’m speaking/ I speak/ I’m speak three languages: French, Spanish and English.

2. A Where does Hans come/ Hans come/ is Hans coming from?

B He’s Swiss. He comes from Zurich.

3. A What you do/ do you do/ are you doing tonight?

B I’m going out.

4. A Where’s George?

B He has/ ’s having/ have a shower.

5. A What means this word/ does mean this word/ does this word mean?

B I don’t know. Look it up.

6. A Do you want a cigarette?

B No, thanks. I don’t smoke/ not smoke/ smoke not.

7. Last year I went/ go/ was go to America on holiday.

8. How long you stay/ did you stay/ stayed you in America?

9. The weekends was boring. I no do/ didn’t/ didn’t do anything.

10. A I’m going to university next year.

B What are you going to/ you going to/ do you study?

 

5-6 Practical lesson

Read and translate the text about applications of biotechnology

Vocabulary

Application, agriculture, biodegradable, domestication of plants, vegetable oil, biofuels, transgenic plants, genetic cures, enzymes, biological weapons, industrial biotechnology, bioeconomy.

 

Task.Correcting mistakes.

I. Correct mistakes in these sentences.

1. At the weekend I’m usually go swimming.

2. Are you enjoy the party?

3. We can’t play tennis because it rains.

4. Do you can play chess?

5. How many sisters you have?

6. I no understand what you’re saying.

7. What you do tonight?

8. What time you get home last night?

9. Last weekend I see some friends and we have a meal.

10. I’m loving English food. It’s wonderful!

 

II. Give the main idea of the text

 

7-8 Practical lesson

 

Read and translate the text about objects of biotechnology

Objects of biotechnology

A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Most viruses are too small to be seen directly with a light microscope. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 viruses have been described in detail, although there are millions of different types. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.

Cells are the fundamental units of living things, from the smallest bacterium to the largest of the plants and animals. Bacteria, the smallest cells, are visible only with the aid of a microscope. The smallest bacteria (Chlamydia and Rickettsia) are only 0.1 to 0.2 um in diameter, whereas larger bacteria may be many microns in length. A newly described species is hundreds of times larger than the average bacterial cell and is visible to the naked eye. Most species, however, are approximately 1 um in diameter and are therefore visible using the light microscope, which has a resolution of 0.2 um. In comparison, animal and plant cells are much larger, ranging from 7 um (the diameter of a red blood cell) to several feet (the length of certain nerve cells).

Each cell contains the genetic basis for reproduction in its DNA genome, the biochemical machinery for transcribing genetic information into messenger RNA (mRNA) and translating the mRNA into proteins, and the machinery for energy production and biosynthesis, which is all packaged by a membrane. In addition, each cell replicates by cell division. The mechanisms and machinery for accomplishing these functions are basically similar, but the specifics may be different for bacteria and for the higher order organisms. These differences are influenced by the structure of the cell, the environment in which the cell lives, the source and means of the cell's energy production, and the nature of and requirement for cell interaction (or lack thereof).

 

Vocabulary

Virus, to replicate, light microscope, units of living things, to describe, species, visible to the naked eye, genome, the biochemical machinery, transcribing genetic information, protein, cell division.

 

Task.Making questions with do/ does/ did

Write Yes/No questions for these sentences.

 

1. You like music.

Do you like music?

2. She comes from France.

______________

3. They live in a flat.

_______________

4. You take sugar in tea.

_______________

5. I speak English well.

_______________

6. She watched a film last night.

_______________

7. It started at 8.00.

_______________

8. You want to go home.

_______________

9. He works hard.

_______________

 

 

9-10 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Letter Ii, Yy

Word formation: suffix – ly

Text:Microscopy: The Instruments

 

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) Ii, Yy are pronounced as followings:

 
 

 

 


 

b) Adverb are formed with the help of the suffix – ly:

usual – usually

bad – badly

 

II Read the words paying attention to the pronounciation:

Tin, Pete, in, it, time, tie, pine, pie, life, find, my, type, by, five, line, light, microscope, biology, instrument.

 

III Form

adverbs from the following adjectives and translate them into Russian:

Easy, slight, correct, ready, certain, slow.

Microscopy: The Instruments

Light microscopy refers to the use of any kind of microscope that uses visible light to observe specimens. A modern compound light microscope has a series of lenses and uses visible light as its source of illumination. With a compound light microscope, we can examine very small specimens as well as some of their fine detail. This magnification is achieved when light rays from an illuminator, the light source, pass through a condenser, which has lenses that direct the light rays through the specimen. The image of the specimen is magnified again by the ocular lens, or eyepiece. We can calculate the total magnification of a specimen by multiplying the objective lens magnification by the ocular lens.

Most microscopes used in microbiology have several objective lenses, including lOX (low power), 40X (high power), and lOOX (oil immersion, which is described shortly). A general principle of microscopy is that the shorter the wavelength of light used in the instrument, the greater the resolution. The white light used in a compound light microscope has a relatively long wavelength and cannot resolve structures smaller than about 0.2 mm. This fact and other practical considerations limit the magnification achieved by even the best compound light microscopes to about 2000X. By comparison, Van Leeuwenhoek's microscopes had a resolution of 1 mm shows various specimens that can be resolved by the human eye, light microscope, and electron microscope.

To obtain a clear, finely detailed image under a compound light microscope, specimens must be made to contrast sharply with their medium .To attain such contrast, we must change the refractive index of specimens from that of their medium. We change the refractive index of specimens by staining them. As the light rays travel away from the specimen, they spread out and enter the objective lens, and the image is thereby magnified.

 

 

To preserve the direction of light rays at the highest magnification, immersion oil is placed between the glass slide and the oil immersion objective lens. The immersion oil has the same refractive index as glass, so the oil becomes part of the optics of the glass of the microscope. The oil has the same effect as increasing the objective lens diameter, therefore, it improves the resolving power of the lenses. If oil is not used with an oil immersion objective lens, the image becomes fuzzy, with poor resolution.

IX Word order

Put the words in the correct order to make questions. Then answer the questions about it.

1. buy/ you/ the/ did/ at/ what/ shops/?

2. is/ who/ teacher/ your/ English/?

3. parents/ moment/ where/ your/ the/ at/ are/?

4. cinema/ you/ go/ last/ when/ did/ the/ to/?

5. learning/ you/ why/ English/ are/?

6. you/ how/ to/ come/ school/ do/?

7. brothers and sisters/ you/ many/ have/ how/ do/?

 

 

X Answer the questions:

1. What kind of microscope is used the most common in microbiology?

2. What kind of objective lenses do you know?

3. How is calculated the total magnification of an object?

4. What does light microscope use for to examine specimens?

5. For what is immersion oil used?

 

11-12 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter combinations er, ir, yr, ur, or, ar

Word formation: suffix of nouns – ion, -tion

Text:The prokaryotic cell

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) Letter combination ar is pronounced as [a:], e.g.: far

Letter combinations er, ir, yr, ur are pronounced as [ә:],e.g.: her, sir

Letter combination or is pronounced as [o:], e.g.: for

a) Suffixes –ic, -al form adjectives from the nouns:

person – personal

history – historical

base – basic

 

Remember!!!

So is used to express the result of the statement before.

Because expresses the reason or cause of something.

Cause -----------------------------------------------Result

it started to rain, so we stopped playing tennis.

Result------------------------------------------------Cause

We stopped playing tennis because it started to rain.

II Read the words paying attention to the pronunciation:

Large, term, firm, colour, girl, sister, mark, fork, fur, her, similar, their, factor, first, burn, war.

 

III Read and translate the following words:

Central, experimental, academic, electric, prokaryotic, practical, monumental, historical, bacterial, social.

 

The prokaryotic cell

The members of the prokaryotic world make up a vast heterogeneous group of very small unicellular organisms. Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea. The majority of prokaryotes, including the photosynthesizing cyanobacteria, are bacteria. Although bacteria and archaea look similar, their chemical composition is different. The thousands of species of bacteria are differentiated by many factors, including morphology (shape), chemical composition (often detected by staining reactions), nutritional requirements, biochemical activities, and sources of energy (sunlight or chemicals). It is estimated that 99% of the bacteria in nature exist in biofilms.

The chief distinguishing characteristics of prokaryotes (from the Greek words meaning prenucleus) are as follows:

1. Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane and is usually a singular circularly arranged chromosome. (Some bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae, have two chromosomes, and some bacteria have a linearly arranged chromosome.)

2. Their DNA is not associated with histones (special chromosomal proteins found in eukaryotes); other proteins are associated with the DNA.

3. They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.

4. Their cell walls almost always contain the complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan.

5. They usually divide by binary fission. During this process, the DNA is copied, and the cell splits into two cells. Binary fission involves fewer structures and processes than eukaryotic cell division.

 

V Remember the following word and word-combinations:

The prokaryotic cell, unicellular organisms, a vast heterogeneous group, the photosynthesizing cyanobacteria, chemical composition, morphology, shape, nutritional requirements, sources of energy, biofilms, chromosome, chromosomal proteins, organelles, cell walls, the complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan, fission, the cell splits into two cells, cytoplasm, ribosome, flagella, plasmid, capsule, inclusion.

VI Find the sentences with the following word-combinations:

Одноклеточные организмы, химический состав, источники энергии, отличительные характеристики, клеточная стенка.

 

VII Give the antonyms of the following words:

Small, vast, similar, different, chief

The eukaryotic cell

 

Eukaryotes (from the Greek words meaning true nucleus) contain nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The eukaryotic cell is typically larger and structurally more complex than the prokaryotic cell.

The plasma (cytoplasmic) membrane of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is very similar in function and basic structure. There are, however, differences in the types of proteins found in the membranes.

The cytoplasm is the substance in which various cellular components are found. A major difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cytoplasm is that eukaryotic cytoplasm has a complex internal structure, consisting of exceedingly small rods (microfilaments and intermediate filaments) and cylinders (microtubules). Together, they form the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton provides support and shape and assists in transporting substances through the cell.

Attached to the outer surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum are ribosomes, which are also found free in the cytoplasm. As in prokaryotes, ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis in the cell.

The nucleus is usually spherical or oval, is frequently the largest structure in the cell, and contains almost all of the cell's hereditary information (DNA). Some DNA is also found in mitochondria and in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms.

The first step in the transport pathway is through an organelle called the Golgi complex. It consists of 3 to 20 cisterns. The cisterns are often curved, giving the Golgi complex a cuplike shape.

Lysosomes are formed from Golgi complexes and look like membrane-enclosed spheres. Unlike mitochondria, lysosomes have only a single membrane and lack internal structure.

A vacuole is a space or cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell that is enclosed by a membrane called a tonoplast. In plant cells, vacuoles may occupy 5-90% of the cell volume, depending on the type of cell. Vacuoles are derived from the Golgi complex and have several diverse functions. Some vacuoles serve as temporary storage organelles for substances such as proteins, sugars, organic acids, and inorganic ions. Other vacuoles form during endocytosis to help bring food into the cell.

Spherical or rod-shaped organelles called mitochondria (singular: mitochondrion) appear throughout the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are often called the "powerhouses of the cell" because of their central role in ATP production. Mitochondria contain 70 ribosomes and some DNA of their own, as well as the machinery necessary to replicate, transcribe, and translate the information encoded by their DNA. In addition, mitochondria can reproduce more or less on their own by growing and dividing in two.

Algae and green plants contain a unique organelle called a chloroplast, a membrane-enclosed structure that contains both the pigment chlorophyll and the enzymes required for the light-gathering phases of photosynthesis.

The centrosome, located near the nucleus, consists of two components: the pericentriolar area and centrioles. This area is the organizing center for the mitotic spindle, which plays a critical role in cell division, and for microtubule formation in nondividing cells.

 

V Remember the following word and word-combinations:

Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, various cellular components, internal structure, microtubules, hereditary information, the sites of protein synthesis, cavity in the cytoplasm, to occupy, vacuoles are derived from the Golgi complex, temporary storage, organic acids, to replicate, to transcribe, light-gathering, spindle, nondividing cells.

 

 

 

VI Find the sentences with the following word-combinations:

Vacuoles may occupy 5-90% of the cell volume, the sites of protein synthesis in the cell, contain nucleic acids, assists in transporting substances, the types of proteins, the mitotic spindle, spherical or rod-shaped organelles.

 

VII Insert the missing words:

1. The eukaryotic cell is typically larger and…

2. Some DNA is also found in mitochondria and in…

3. The cytoplasm is the substance…

 

VIII Translate into English:

1. Эукариоты содержат нуклеиновые кислоты, белки, липиды и углеводы.

2. Ядро содержит наследственную информацию.

3. Лизосомы имеют единственную мембрану.

4. Цитоплазма – это вещество, содержащее в себе различные клеточные компоненты.

5. Главная роль митохондрий – это выделение АТФ.

 

IX Complete the sentences with a word from the box. Careful! Sometimes no word is necessary.

ago last in for at when on

 

1. I was born in Africa _____ 1970.

2. My parents moved back to England _____ I was five.

3. We lived in Bristol _____three years.

4. I left college three years _____.

5. I found a flat on my own _____ last year.

6. I usually go home _____ weekend because some friends came to stay.

7. They arrived _____ three o’clock _____ in the afternoon.

8. _____ Saturday evening we went out to a concert.

9. _____ we got home we listened to some music.

10. We got up late _____ Sunday morning.

11. _____the afternoon we went for a walk.

12. I bought a car a few weeks _____.

13. I had an accident _____ last night.

14. It happened _____ seven o’clock _____ the evening.

15. I took my car to the garage _____ this morning.

16. It will be ready _____ two weeks.

 

16-17 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter Gg

Word formation: suffix of adjectives – ic, -al

Text:Evolution of eukaryotes

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) Gg is pronounced as follows:

Before e,i,y [] : page, gene, biotechnology

Before constants and other vowels [g]: game, glad, bag

b) Suffixes –ic, -al form adjectives from the nouns:

person – personal

history – historical

base - basic

II Read the words paying attention to the pronunciation:

Gate, gem, gas, age, gym, page, egg, gene, game, gag, green, geography.

 

III Give the transcription to the following words:

Bag, page, big, give, guess, gloves, go, great, general.

 

IV Read and translate the following words:

Central, experimental, academic, electric, prokaryotic, practical, monumental, historical, bacterial, social.

 

V Read and translate the text about evolution of eukaryotes

 

The Evolution of Eukaryotes

Biologists generally believe that life arose on Earth in the form of very simple organisms, similar to prokaryotic cells, about 3.5 to 4 billion years ago. About 2.5 billion years ago, the first eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells. Recall that prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ mainly in that eukaryotes contain highly specialized organelles. The theory explaining the origin of eukaryotes from prokaryotes, pioneered by Lynn Margulis, is the endosymbiotic theory. According to this theory, larger bacterial cells lost their cell walls and engulfed smaller bacterial cells. This relationship, in which one organism lives within another, is called endosymbiosis.

According to the endosymbiotic theory, the ancestral eukaryote developed a rudimentary nucleus when the plasma membrane folded around the chromosome. This cell, called a nucleoplasm, may have ingested aerobic bacteria. Some ingested bacteria lived inside the host nucleoplasm. This arrangement evolved into a symbiotic relationship in which the host nucleoplasm supplied nutrients and the endosymbiotic bacterium produced energy that could be used by the nucleoplasm. Similarly, chloroplasts may be descendants of photosynthetic prokaryotes ingested by this early nucleoplasm. Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are believed to have originated from symbiotic associations between the plasma membrane of early eukaryotes and motile spiral bacteria called spirochetes.

Studies comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells provide evidence for the endosymbiotic theory. For example, both mitochondria and chloroplasts resemble bacteria in size and shape. Further, these organelles contain circular DNA, which is typical of prokaryotes, and the organelles can reproduce independently of their host cell. Moreover, mitochondrial and chloroplast ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes, and their mechanism of protein synthesis is more similar to that found in bacteria .

 

VI Remember the following word and word-combinations:

To arise, simple organisms, the first eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells, to differ, to pioneer, relationship, ancestral, rudimentary nucleus, to ingest, nutrient, descendant, cilia, to originate, host cell.

 

VII Find in the text pairs of synonyms and remember trhem:

Hereditary, alike, form, generate, compare, elementary.

 

VIII Paraphrase the sentences using synonyms:

1. Biologists generally believe that life arose on Earth in the form of very simple organisms, similar to prokaryotic cells, about 3.5 to 4 billion years ago.

2. According to the endosymbiotic theory, the ancestral eukaryote developed a rudimentary nucleus when the plasma membrane folded around the chromosome.

3. For example, both mitochondria and chloroplasts resemble bacteria in size and shape.

 

4. Further, these organelles contain circular DNA, which is typical of prokaryotes, and the organelles can reproduce independently of their host cell.

5. Moreover, mitochondrial and chloroplast ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes, and their mechanism of protein synthesis is more similar to that found in bacteria .

 

Microbial Metabolism

The life-support processes of even the most structurally simple organism involve a large number of complex biochemical reactions. Most, although not all of the biochemical processes of bacteria also occur in eukaryotic microbes and in the cells of multicellular organisms, including humans. However, the reactions that are unique to bacteria are fascinating because they allow microorganisms to do things we cannot do. For example, some bacteria can live on cellulose, whereas others can live on petroleum. Through their metabolism, bacteria recycle elements after other organisms have used them. Still other bacteria can live on diets of such inorganic substances as carbon dioxide, iron, sulfur, hydrogen gas, and ammonia.

We use the term metabolism to refer to the sum of all chemical reactions within a living thing organism. Because chemical reactions either release or require energy, metabolism can be viewed as an energy-balancing act. Accordingly, metabolism can be divided in classes of chemical reactions: those that release energy and those that require energy.

In living cells, the enzyme-regulated chemical reactions that release energy are generally the ones involved in catabolism, the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones. Those reactions are called catabolic, or degradative, reactions. Catabolic reactions are generally hydrolytic reactions and they are exergonic. An example of catabolism occurs when cells break down sugar into carbon dioxide and water.

The enzyme-regulated energy-requiring reactions are mostly involved in anabolism, the building of complex organic molecules from simper ones. These reactions are called anabolic, or biosynthetic synthesis reactions, and they are endergonic. Examples of anabolic processes are the formation of proteins from amino acids, nucleic acids from nucleotides, and polysaccharides from simple sugars. These biosynthetic reactions generate the materials for cell growth.

The role of ATP in coupling anabolic and catabolic reactions is shown in Figure 7. Only part of the energy released in catabolism is actually available for cellular functions because part of the energy is lost to the environment as heat. Because the cell must use energy to maintain life, it has a continuous need for new external sources of energy.

 

 

V Remember the following word and word-combinations:

Life-support, biochemical reactions, fascinating, petroleum, cellulose, diet, carbon dioxide, iron, sulfur, hydrogen gas, ammonia, to require, to release, compound, hydrolytic reactions, exergonic, endergonic, amino acid, polysaccharide, cell growth.

 

VI True or false?

1. We use the term metabolism to refer to the sum of all chemical reactions within a living thing organism.

2. Catabolic reactions are endergonic.

3. Anabolic reactions are exergonic.

4. Bacteria can live on diets of such inorganic substances as carbon dioxide, iron, sulfur, hydrogen gas, and ammonia.

5. All energy released in catabolism is actually available for cellular functions because part of the energy is lost to the environment as heat.

 

VII Insert the missing words:

1. Reactions are called catabolic, or…

2. Reactions are called anabolic, or…

3. Catabolism occurs when cells break down sugar into…

 

VIII Give English equivalents to the following words:

Аминокислота, железо, сера, углерод, полисахарид, диоксид.

 

IX Answer the questions:

1. What does mean metabolism?

2. How metabolism is classified?

3. What is catabolism?

4. What is anabolism?

5. For what biosynthetic reactions do generate the materials?

 

X Retell the text.

 

21-23 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter Cc

Word building: suffix of adjective – ive

Text:Enzymes

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) Cc is pronounced as follows:

Before e,i,y [s]: city, center, circle

Before constants and other vowels [k]: come, cold, clear

b) - suffix –ive forms the adjectives from the verbs: connective, attentive, active, effective.

 

II Read the words according to the rules of reading of the letter “Cc”:

Cinema, computer, city, secret, cell, to call, accelerate, specific, cat, circle, cytoplasm.

 

III Put down the words into 2 columns: the words with the sounds [k], [s]

Cap, face, civil, clean, black, thick, icy, to catalyze, place, cake, cinema, accelerate, lecture, country, advice, car, nice, incident, Nick, across.

 

IV Form the adjectives from verbs:

To collect, to act, to effect, to respect, to connect, to create, to react.

 

V Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress:

Substance, reaction, catalyst, enzyme, protein, specific, active, molecule.

 

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. The chemical energy is then used to convert CO 2 from the atmosphere to more reduced carbon compounds, primarily sugars. The word photosynthesis summarizes the process: photo means light, and synthesis refers to the assembly of organic compounds. This synthesis of sugars by using carbon atoms from CO 2 gas is also called carbon fixation. Continuation of life as we know it on Earth depends on the recycling of carbon in this way. Cyanobacteria, algae, and green plants all contribute to this vital recycling with photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis can be summarized with the following equations:

1. Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria use water as a hydrogen donor, releasing O2

6 CO2 + 12 H2 0 + Light energy---- C6 H12 06 + 6 H2 0 + 6 O2

2. Purple sulfur and green sulfur bacteria use H2S as a hydrogen donor, producing sulfur granules.

6 CO2 + 12 H2S + Light energy---- C6 H1206 + 6 H2 0 + 12S

In the course of photosynthesis, electrons are taken from hydrogen atoms, an energy-poor molecule, and incorporated into sugar, an energy-rich molecule. The energy boost is supplied by light energy, although indirectly.

Photosynthesis takes place in two stages. In the first stage, called the (light) reactions. Light energy is used to convert ADP and to ATP. In the second stage, the light-independent (dark) reactions, these electrons are used along with energy from ATP to reduce CO2 to sugar.

VII Remember the following word and word-combinations:

Conversion, light energy, the assembly of organic compounds, to contribute, vital recycling, equation, purple sulfur bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, in the course of photosynthesis, energy-poor molecule, energy-rich molecule.

 

VIII Find the pairs of synonyms:

Conversion, primarily, assembly, sugars, firstly, carbohydrates, stage, donor, synthesis, step, giver, alteration.

 

IX Find the pairs of antonyms:

Light, poor, directly, reach, indirectly, donor, dark, keeping.

 

X Translate into English:

Превращение световой энергии солнца в химическую энергию, атом водорода, серные гранулы, бедная энергией молекула, богатая энергией молекула.

 

XI Answer the questions:

1. What does mean photosynthesis?

2. How is called synthesis of sugars by using carbon atoms from CO2 gas?

3. What organisms do realize photosynthesis?

4. How many stages do have photosynthesis?

5. How are differentiated light and dark reactions?

 

XII Retell the text.

27-29 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter combinations tion

Word formation: suffix of noun – ion

Text:A nutritional classification of organism

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) The letter combinations tion pronounced as [∫n]: dictation

b) Suffix – ion forms the nouns from the verbs: to revise – revision

 

II Read the words according to the rules of reading of the letter combinations “tion”:

Station, nation, classification, reaction, distribution, nutrition, fixation, combination, acceleration.

 

III Form the nouns from the verb:

To distribute, to reduce, to dictate, to infect, to generate, to communicate, to reserve, to fascinate.

 

VIII True or false?

1. Autotrophs use organic carbon source.

2. Autotrophs are referred to as organotrophs.

3. Phototrophs use light as their primary energy source.

4. Heterotrophs use carbon dioxide.

5. Chemotrophs depend on oxidation-reduction reactions of inorganic or organic compounds.

 

IX Make the sentences using these words:

1. Organism, nutritional, to, is, all, classified, pattern, their.

2. Classify, we, as, or, can, generally, phototrophs, organisms, chemotrophs.

3. Source, use, carbon dioxide, an organic carbon, heterotrophs, autotrops, and, require.

4. Catabolize, from, infectious, the host, substances, from, organism, obtained.

5. Source, an organic, heterotrophs, carbon, require.

 

X Write the missing letters:

Inec…ious, m…crobe, heterotro…h, chemo…roph, n…tritioal, …utotroph, …hototroph, sourc…, ener…y, …etabolic, sub…tan…e.

 

XI Answer the questions:

1. How all organisms are classified to their nutritional pattern?

2. What do use photorophs?

3. What do use chemotrophs?

4. How are differentiated autotrophs and heterotrophs?

5. What kind of chemotrophs do you know?

 

XII Describe the Figure 8.

 

 

30-32 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter combinations ow, ou

Word formation: suffix of noun – ment

Text:Physical Requirements for Growth of microorganisms

 

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) Letter combinations are pronounced as followings:

ow [әu]: low
[au]: brown
ou [au]: aut

b) Suffix – ment forms the nouns from the verbs: to agree – agreement

 

II Read the words paying attention to their pronunciation:

House, yellow, growth, about, town, snow, down, known, out, loud, window, how, vow, amount.

 

III Give the transcription to the following words:

Narrow, grow, out, aloud, however, about, down, brown, below, Moscow, cow.

 

 

IV Form the nouns from the verb:

To improve, to require, to impeach, to agree, to pay, to retire.

 

XI Retell the text.

33-35 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter combinations qu

Word formation: suffixes of adjectives – ant, -ent

Text:Chemical Requirements for Growth of microorganisms

 

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) Letter combinations qu are pronounced as [qw]: quickly

b) – ant, - ent are suffixes of adjectives: elegant, different

 

II Read the words paying attention to their pronunciation:

Requirement, quality, question, quantity, quest, quite, square, squirrel.

 

III Read and translate to the following words:

Impotent, distant, present, significant, different, important, opponent.

 

IV Learn the names of chemical elements and compounds:

Carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, phospholipids,

phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, molybdenum, zinc.

 

V Read and translate the text about classification of organisms:

Fermentation Technology

The industrial production of microbial products usually involves fermentation. Industrial fermentation is the large-scale cultivation of microbes or other single cells to produce a commercially valuable substance.

Vessels for industrial fermentation are called bioreactors; they are designed with close attention to aeration, pH control, and temperature control. There are many different designs, but the most widely used bioreactors are of the continuously stirred type (Figure). The air is introduced through a diffuser at the bottom (which breaks up the incoming airstream to maximize aeration), and a series of impeller paddles and stationary wall baffles keep the microbial suspension agitated. Oxygen is not very soluble in water, and keeping the heavy microbial suspension well aerated is difficult. Highly sophisticated designs have been developed to achieve maximum efficiency in aeration and other growth requirements, including medium formulation. The high value of the products of genetically modified microorganisms and eukaryotic cells has stimulated the development of newer types of bioreactors and computerized controls for them.

 

 

VI Remember the following word and word-combinations:

Large-scale, commercially valuable substance, vessel, stirred type, bottom, impeller paddle, stationary wall baffle, soluble in water, to achieve, high value of the products, cooling jacket, motor, culture broth, liquid level, foam breaker, sterile air, harvesting drain, steam for sterilization.

 

VII Make the sentences using these words:

1. Products, the industrial, fermentation, production, of, involves, microbial.

2. Bioreactors, fermentation, industrial, vessels, called, for, are.

3. Is, in, very, oxygen, not, soluble, water.

4. Value, the high, microorganisms, of, of genetically, the products, modified.

5. Type, the most, bioreactors, stirred, are, used, continuously, widely, of, the.

 

VIII Give English equivalents to the following words:

Промышленное производство, ценное вещество, реактор с мешалкой, генетически модифицированные организмы, пеногаситель, охлаждающая рубашка, культуральная жидкость, компьютеризированный контроль.

 

IX Fill in the gaps with the proper words:

1. The industrial production of microbial products usually involves ...

2. They are designed with close attention to aeration, pH control, and … control.

3. Oxygen is not very … in water, and keeping the heavy microbial suspension well aerated is difficult.

4. Vessels for industrial … are called bioreactors.

5. The most widely used bioreactors are of the continuously … type.

 

X Answer the questions:

1. What does involve the industrial production of microbial products?

2. What do mean bioreactors?

3. What do mean industrial fermentation?

4. How are designed bioreactors?

5. What kind of bioreactors are widely used in industrial production?

 

XI Describe the figure 9.

 

39-41 Practical lesson

 

Read and translate the text about application of microorganisms in food industry

X Retell the text.

 

 

45 Practical lesson

 

Rules of reading: Theletter combinations kn:

Word formation: suffix of adjective – able

Text:Biotechnology and future

 

Assignments to do:

I Remember:

a) The rules of reading the letter combinations kn is pronounced as [n]: to know

 

b) Suffix – able form the adjectives from the verbs: to renew – renewable

 

II Read the words paying attention to their pronunciation:

Knife, knack, knowledge, knap, knee.

 

III Form adjective from the verb:

To comfort, to increase, to read, to avail, to value.

 

IV Read and translate the text about biotechnology

Literature

1. Microbiology: an introduction/ Gerard J.Tortora. Wiley-Liss. 2006, 511p.

2. Environmental microbiology. I.L. Pepper. Sunauer Assotiates,Inc, USA, 2008. – 657p.

3. Антипова Л.В., Жаринов А.И. Прикладная биотехнология. Воронеж.

ВГТА. 2001, – 332 с.

4. Microbiology and technology of fermented foods. Robert W. Hutkins. Ltd, 2005. 357 p.

5. Biochemical engineering and .biotechnology. Ghasem D.Najafpour. 2007.

6. Pickering W.R. Complete biology. Oxford, 2000.

7. Vinjak-Novakovich G. Culture of cells for tissue engineering. New Jersey, USA: Wiley-Liss. 2006, 511p.

8. J.Taylor.Nelson Thornes. Microorganisms and biotechnology Ltd, 2001

9. Sadava David E. Life: the science of biology. Sunauer Assotiates,Inc, USA, 2008. – 1251p.

10. John and Liz Soars. New Head way. English course. Pre-Intermediate. OXFORD University press.

11. Malcolm Mann, Steve Tailor-Knowles. Laser FCE. Intermediate. MacMillan.

 

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ КАЗАХСТАН

ЮЖНО-КАЗАХСТАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Им. .М.АУЕЗОВА

 

 

Кафедра Биотехнология

 

 

Джакашева М.А., Джантасова А.А.

 

Методические указания по практическим занятиям

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере»

 

 

(5В070100 – для студентов Биотехнологических специальностей)

 

Contents

 

1-2 practical lesson What is biotechnology?
3-4 practical lesson History of biotechnology
5-6 practical lesson Applications of biotechnology in different areas
7-8 practical lesson Objects of biotechnology
9-10 practical lesson Microscopy: The Instruments
11-12 practical lesson The prokaryotic cell
13-14 practical lesson Identify the three basic shapes of bacteria
15 practical lesson The eukaryotic cell
16-17 practical lesson The evolution of eukaryotes
18-20 practical lesson Microbial metabolism
21-23 practical lesson Enzymes and chemical reactions
24-26 practical lesson Photosynthesis
27-29 practical lesson A nutritional classification of organisms
30-32 practical lesson Physical requirements for growth of microorganisms
33-35 practical lesson Chemical requirements for growth of microorganisms
36-38 practical lesson Fermentation technology
39-41 practical lesson Application of microorganisms in food industry
42-44 practical lesson The commercial microbial products
45 practical lesson Biotechnology and future
Glossary  
Literature  

 

УДК _____________

 

Составители: Джакашева М.А., Джантасова А.А.

Методическое пособие для практических занятий по предмету «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» ЮКГУ им.М.Ауезова, 2012 – 55 стр.

 

 

Методическое пособие предназначено для студентов ІІІ курсов очного и заочного обучения, специальностей 050701 «Биотехнология»

 

 

Рецензенты:

Муталиева Б.Ж. к.х.н., ст.преподаватель кафедры

«Биотехнология»

 

 

Рассмотрено на заседании кафедры от №1 « 28 » 08 2012 г.

 

 

комиссией Химико-технологического факультета

Протокол № от « 29» 082012 г.

 

 

© ЮКГУ имени М.Ауезова, 2012

 

1-2 Practical lesson. Present Simple

 

Positive and negative

I We You They live don’t live   near here
He She It lives doesn’t lives

 

 

  Where do I We You They   live  
does He She It

 

Present Simple is used to express:

1. a habit.

I get up at 7.30.

Cinda smokes too much.

2. a fact which is always true.

Vegetarians don’t eat meat.

We come from Spain.

3. a fact which is true for a long time.

I live in Oxford.

She works in a bank.

 

Read and translate the text about biotechnology.

 

 

What is Biotechnology?

 

Biotechnology in one form or another has flourished since prehistoric times. When the first human beings realized that they could plant their own crops and breed their own animals, they learned to use biotechnology. The discovery that fruit juices fermented into wine, or that milk could be converted into cheese or yogurt, or that beer could be made by fermenting solutions of malt and hops began the study of biotechnology. When the first bakers found that they could make a soft, spongy bread rather than a firm, thin cracker, they were acting as fledgling biotechnologists. The first animal breeders, realizing that different physical traits could be either magnified or lost by mating appropriate pairs of animals, engaged in the manipulations of biotechnology.

What then is biotechnology? The term brings to mind many different things. Some think of developing new types of animals. Others dream of almost unlimited sources of human therapeutic drugs. Still others envision the possibility of growing crops that are more nutritious and naturally pest-resistant to feed a rapidly growing world population. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as:"Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use." In other terms: «The industrial application of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a useful product" is biotechnology.

In its pu






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