Oxford and Cambridge Universities are the ones known for their specific system of education. Great emphasis is laid at Oxford and Cambridge on what are called “tutorials” in which a Don (a university tutor) gives personal instruction in his subject at least once a week to the students numbering not more than 4.
The central University, in general, arranges lectures for all students in a particular subject and holds examinations and grants degrees; an individual college provides for residence and tutoring. This system of teaching differs greatly from that of other universities.
In the faculty of Modern Languages in Oxford the average student attends 1–2 literature tutorials per week. In addition for language work he will be obliged to attend 2 prose classes per week – to read out the proses he has prepared during the week. For literature tutorials the student is given an essay to prepare which he will read out in the next tutorial and must be prepared to discuss and criticize. Most of the material for this may be obtained from criticism and texts. In Oxford more emphasis is placed on original texts than on criticisms which are considered of secondary importance to the student’s own views. The other source of material is, of course, lectures, which, unlike other universities, are optional.
The effect of this system on the student is profound. As almost nothing is compulsory except the weekly tutorials the student must learn to discipline himself perhaps for the first time in his life.
Answer the questions on text 3:
1. Why is the town of Oxford famous all over the word?
2. How does Oxford University justify its reputation of a privileged school?
3. What is Oxford University Press?
4. What is Cambridge famous for?
5. How many colleges are there in Cambridge University?
6. Which is the oldest college?
7. When was the most recent college opened?
8. What is it famous for?
9. Why is a system of education in Oxford and Cambridge specific?
10. Would you like to study at one of these universities? Why?
Chapter 10. Famous people of Belarus and Great Britain
Text 1. famous People of Belarus
Read the text and answer the questions that follow it.
Study the following vocabulary before reading the texts:
a folk story-tellers – фольклорист
an eternal hit – вечный хит
an amateur dance group – любительская танцевальная группа
an impact – влияние
a scholar – учёный
a merchant family – мещанская семья
a written language – литературный язык
oral folk art – устное народное творчество
a non-figurative art = an abstract art
a prose-writer – прозаик
Belarusian culture comprises a wide range of arts which ensure the harmonious development of the citizens. The pride of Belarus is the literary works by Belarusian poets and prose-writers. The sweet poetry of Maxim Bogdanovich and Yanka Kupala, the deep prose of Yakub Kolas and Vasil Bykov, the magic masterpieces of Vladimir Korotkevich and Ivan Borshchevsky are brilliant examples of Belarusian work of literature. Everybody has read famous poems by Yakub Kolas, Yanka Kupala, Petrus Brovka. We all admire the wonderful works of Vasil Bykov, Ales Adamovich, Ivan Melezh, Ivan Shamyakin, Maxim Tank, Nil Gilevich, Grigoriy Baradulin and other talented Belarusian poets and writers.
There are quite a number of theatres in Belarus. Some of them specialize in modern plays, others prefer classics. The Yanka Kupala State Academic Theatre, the Gorky Russian Drama Theatre, the Opera and Ballet Theatre‚ the Music Comedy Theatre‚ the Puppet Show Theatre are famous for their excellent performances which are always a success. The names of such prominent men of theatrical art as contemporary dramatist Alexey Dudarev, choreographer Valentin Yelisariev, artistic director of the Russian Academic Theatre Boris Loutsenko, actors and actresses like S. Stanyuta, N. Eremenko, the great soprano Larisa Alexandrovskaya and many, many others are known by the Belarusians and by people of other countries.
The Belarusian folk singers sing a wide variety of old and new Belarusian folk songs which form the basis of the repertoire of most vocal and instrumental groups. Patriarch of Belarusian pop music Vladimir Moulyavin and his ever young “Pesnyary” always present their eternal hits loved by all generations. Since its birth in 1969 the group has remained true to national Belarusian art. Monuments of Belarusian written language and oral folk art of the 16th and 17th centuries still exist today. The most typical of them are mourning songs. Many Belarusian folk songs relate to the coming of spring, harvest-time, Midsummer Day, Christmas, marriage and other holidays and events. Choral musicians, in particular H. Shirma (1892–1978) and V. Rovda (1921) did much in research of folk musical compositions.
There are a lot of professional and amateur folklore dance groups in Belarus. We all admire the dances of the groups “Khoroshki”, “Polessye”, “Radost” and others. These groups are well-known not only in our country. They found their fans all over the world.
It is known that our republic has many talented artists, who have won the world recognition. The most talented Belarusian artists have a chance to implement their artistic aspirations. The pictures of the past go hand in hand with the works of modern Belarusian artists. The canvases of Mikhail Savitsky, dedicated to the Great Patriotic War are known everywhere. The names of K. Malevich, Mark Shagal, Ya. Drosdovich, A. Isachev, E. Zaitsev, V. Tsvirko, V. Volkov, K. Krasovsky and many others are known far beyond the borders of our country.
The graphic arts in Belarus, in particular painting, are well represented in the galleries of the National Museum of Art in Minsk and Mark Chagall’s exhibition in Vitebsk as well.
The name of Kasimir Malevich (1878–1935) is closely connected with a number of experimental trends in the twentieth-century art. He developed a new course in art which is called “suprematism”. In his books Kazimir Malevich tried to demonstrate the natural development of painting to non-figurative art, which had a profound influence on contemporary painting, architecture and design.
Great contribution to the development of Belarusian sport was made by our sportsmen who take an active part in the world sports movement and the Olympic Games. Major victories have been won by our O. Korbut, V. Scherba M. Lobach and I. Ivankov (gymnastics), T. Samusenko (sprint), A. Medved (wrestling), N. Zvereva and M. Mirny (tennis), B. Gelfand (chess) and so on...
Some prominent names are connected with space exploration. In the family of cosmonauts there are two Belarusians, A. Kovalyonok and P. Klimuk.
Answer the questions on the text:
1. What names are famous in the theatre?
2. What famous artists or painters can you name?
3. What can you say about the development of literature in our country?
4. What sportsmen glorified our republic?
Text 2. famous Britons