Билет № 1
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Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity has come up with one of many definitions of biotechnology:Biotechnology means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use».
This definition is at odds with common usage in the United States, where «biotechnology» generally refers to recombinant DNA based and/or tissue culture based processes that have only been commercialized since the 1970s. Thus, in common usage, modifying plants or animals by breeding, which has been practiced for thousands of years, would not be considered biotechnology. This distinction emphasizes that modern, recombinant DNA based biotechnology is not just a more powerful version of existing technology, but represents something new and different. There has been a great deal of talk — and money — poured into biotechnology with the hope that miracle drugs will appear. While there do seem to be a small number of efficacious drugs, in general the Biotech revolution has not happened in the pharmaceutical sector. However, recent progress with monoclonal antibody based drugs, such as Genentech’s Avastin (tm) suggest that biotech may finally have found a role in pharmaceutical sales. Biotechnology can also be defined as the manipulation of organisms to do practical things and to provide useful products.One aspect of biotechnology is the directed use' of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, cleanup sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and produce biological weapons.There are also applications of biotechnology that do not use living organisms. Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genomic manipulation.White biotechnology, also known as grey biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques. The field is also often referred to as computational biology. It plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.The term blue biotechnologyhas also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.
Agree or disagree with these statements.
1. Modifying plants or animals by breeding can be considered biotechnology.
2. White biotechnology is applied to medical processes.
3. Green biotechnology is applied to industrial processes.
4. Red biotechnology is applied to agricultural processes.
5. The term blue biotechnology describes the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology.
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Утверждено на заседании кафедры
протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.
Зав. кафедрой:_________________ Бимагамбетова Г.А.
Утверждено на заседании УМС факультета
протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.
председатель УМС факультета_____________ Айманова Е.Е.
Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова
Кафедра Биологии и экологии
Шифр, специальность 5В011300 - «Биология»
Предмет « Профессионально-ориентированный английский язык»
Билет № 2
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The Plant Cell is Special
Plants, like any multicellular organisms, are a conglomeration of cells that show a complex division of labor. Plants, of course, are composed of the latter. The plant cell is surrounded by the cell wall, just external to the plasma membrane forming the boundary of the protoplast. The protoplast consists of the cytoplasm (the cytosol, and all the membrane-bounded organelles, as well as the non-organelle structural and functional components that help the cell function) and the nucleus (nucleoplasm and internal nuclear components, such as chromatin).Many intracellular structures (with which you should already be familiar) are not significantly different across eukaryotes. These include: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi (dictyosome), flagella and cilia, cytoskeletal components, mitochondria, nucleus (and contents).
Vacuoles - membrane-bound cavities within the cytoplasm of a cell, usually filled with liquid, used for nutrient (sugar, protein) storage, mineral salts storage, pigment storage (anthocyanins), waste disposal, sequester/provide permanent housing for toxic secondary metabolites, provide structural support via turgor, in seed cells, vacuoles store proteins needed for early germination and growth.
There are several different types of plastids, organelles unique to plants. Three main types are: chloroplast - site of photosynthesis, chromoplasts - contain colored pigments, leucoplasts - multi-purpose, unpigmented plastids.
Nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
Photosynthesis - a process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy (sugars and starches), oxygen and water. Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments (substances that color the plant) are essential to the photosynthetic process, ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane), smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport materials through the cell. Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
Answer these questions.
1. What are the aims and basic processes of plant cell?
2. How can aorganells be specified?
3. What functions of plant cell do you know?
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