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Шифр, специальность 5В011300 -«Биология»



Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Шифр, специальность 5В011300 -«Биология»

Предмет « Профессионально-ориентированный английский язык»

 

Билет № 1

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity has come up with one of many definitions of biotechnology:Biotechnology means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use».

This definition is at odds with common usage in the United States, where «biotechnology» generally refers to recombinant DNA based and/or tissue culture based processes that have only been commercialized since the 1970s. Thus, in common usage, modifying plants or animals by breeding, which has been practiced for thousands of years, would not be considered biotechnology. This distinction emphasizes that modern, recombinant DNA based biotechnology is not just a more powerful version of existing technology, but represents something new and different. There has been a great deal of talk — and money — poured into biotechnology with the hope that miracle drugs will appear. While there do seem to be a small number of efficacious drugs, in general the Biotech revolution has not happened in the pharmaceutical sector. However, recent progress with monoclonal antibody based drugs, such as Genentech’s Avastin (tm) suggest that biotech may finally have found a role in pharmaceutical sales. Biotechnology can also be defined as the manipulation of organisms to do practical things and to provide useful products.One aspect of biotechnology is the directed use' of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, cleanup sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and produce biological weapons.There are also applications of biotechnology that do not use living organisms. Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures through genomic manipulation.White biotechnology, also known as grey biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.Green biotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques. The field is also often referred to as computational biology. It plays a key role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.The term blue biotechnologyhas also been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.

Agree or disagree with these statements.

1. Modifying plants or animals by breeding can be considered biotechnology.

2. White biotechnology is applied to medical processes.

3. Green biotechnology is applied to industrial processes.

4. Red biotechnology is applied to agricultural processes.

5. The term blue biotechnology describes the marine and aquatic applica­tions of biotechnology.

 

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2. Выполнить задания теста.

 

Утверждено на заседании кафедры

протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.

Зав. кафедрой:_________________ Бимагамбетова Г.А.

Утверждено на заседании УМС факультета



протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.

председатель УМС факультета_____________ Айманова Е.Е.

 

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Шифр, специальность 5В011300 - «Биология»

Предмет « Профессионально-ориентированный английский язык»

 

Билет № 2

 

1.Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

The Plant Cell is Special

Plants, like any multicellular organisms, are a conglomeration of cells that show a complex division of labor. Plants, of course, are composed of the latter. The plant cell is surrounded by the cell wall, just external to the plasma membrane forming the boundary of the protoplast. The protoplast consists of the cytoplasm (the cytosol, and all the membrane-bounded organelles, as well as the non-organelle structural and functional components that help the cell function) and the nucleus (nucleoplasm and internal nuclear components, such as chromatin).Many intracellular structures (with which you should already be familiar) are not significantly different across eukaryotes. These include: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi (dictyosome), flagella and cilia, cytoskeletal components, mitochondria, nucleus (and contents).

Vacuoles - membrane-bound cavities within the cytoplasm of a cell, usually filled with liquid, used for nutrient (sugar, protein) storage, mineral salts storage, pigment storage (anthocyanins), waste disposal, sequester/provide permanent housing for toxic secondary metabolites, provide structural support via turgor, in seed cells, vacuoles store proteins needed for early germination and growth.

There are several different types of plastids, organelles unique to plants. Three main types are: chloroplast - site of photosynthesis, chromoplasts - contain colored pigments, leucoplasts - multi-purpose, unpigmented plastids.

Nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.

Photosynthesis - a process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy (sugars and starches), oxygen and water. Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments (substances that color the plant) are essential to the photosynthetic process, ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane), smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport materials through the cell. Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.



Answer these questions.

1. What are the aims and basic processes of plant cell?

2. How can aorganells be specified?

3. What functions of plant cell do you know?

 

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3.Выполнить задания теста.

 

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 3

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Plant Tissue Systems

Like other organisms, plant cells are grouped together into various tissues. These tissues can be simple, consisting of a single cell type, or complex, consisting of more than one cell type. Above and beyond tissues, plants also have a higher level of structure called plant tissue systems. There are three types of tissue systems: dermal tissue, vascular tissue, and ground tissue systems.The dermal tissue system consists of the epidermis and the periderm. The epidermis is generally a single layer of closely packed cells. It both covers and protects the plant. It can be thought of as the plant's "skin". Depending on the part of the plant that it covers, the dermal tissue system can be specialized to a certain extent. For instance, the epidermis of a plant's leaves secretes a coating called the cuticle that helps the plant retain water. The epidermis in plant leaves and stems also contain pores called stomata. Guard cells in the epidermis regulate gas exchange between the plant and the environment by controlling the size of the stomata openings. The periderm, also called bark, replaces the epidermis in plants that undergo secondary growth. The periderm is multilayered as opposed to the single layered epidermis. It consists of cork cells (phellem), phelloderm, and phellogen (cork cambium). Cork cells are nonliving cells that cover the outside of stems and roots to protect and provide insulation for the plant. The periderm protects the plant from pathogens, injury, prevents excessive water loss, and insulates the plant.The ground tissue system synthesizes organic compounds, supports the plant and provides storage for the plant. It is mostly made up of parenchyma cells but can also include some collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells as well. Parenchyma cells synthesize and store organic products in a plant. Most of the plant's metabolism takes place in these cells. Parenchyma cells in leaves control photosynthesis. Collenchyma cells have a support function in plants, particularly in young plants. These cells help to support plants while not restraining growth due to their lack of secondary cell walls and the absence of a hardening agent in their primary cell walls. Sclerenchyma cells also have a support function in plants, but unlike collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid. Xylem and phloem throughout the plant make up the vascular tissue system. They allow water and other nutrients to be transported throughout the plant. Xylem is consists of two types of cells known as tracheids and vessel elements. Tracheids and vessel elements form tube-shaped structures that provide pathways for water and minerals to travel from the roots to the leaves. While tracheids are found in all vascular plants, vessels are found only in angiosperms. Phloem is composed mostly of cells called sieve-tube cells and companion cells. These cells assist in the transport of sugar and nutrients produced during photosynthesis from the leaves to other parts of the plant. While tracheid cells are nonliving, sieve-tube and companion cells of the phloem are living. Companion cells possess a nucleus and actively transport sugar into and out ofsieve-tubes.

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 4

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 5

 

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Human anatomy structure

The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thoraxand abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cells, the fundamental unit of life.

At maturity, the estimated average number of cells in the body is given as 37.2 trillion. This number is stated to be of partial data and to be used as a starting point for further calculations. The number given is arrived at by totalling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The composition of the human body is made up of a number of certain elements including carbon, calcium and phosphorus. The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies known as variations which need to be able to be recognised. Physiology focuses on the systems and their organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis.

The human body consists of many interacting systems. Each system contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire body. A system consists of two or more organs, which are functional collections of tissue. Systems do not work in isolation, and the well-being of the person depends upon the well-being of all the interacting body systems. Some combining systems are referred to by their joint names such as the nervous system and the endocrine system known together as the neuroendocrine system.

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and controls various systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment. The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites for calcium and phosphate. This system can be split up into the muscular system and the skeletal system. The circulatory system or cardiovascular system comprises the heart and blood vessels (arteries,veins, and capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a "transportation system" to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells, and signalling molecules (i.e.,hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the spleen and bone marrow.

 

Find Russian equivalents of these expressions among the words and word combinations of the words/expressions: the thorax and abdomen, the neuroendocrine system, the human skeleton, bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, muscles blood.

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 6

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

Genetic Modification of Animals

Like bacteria and plants, animals can be genetically modified by viral infection. However, the genetic modification occurs only in those cells that become infected, and in most cases these cells are eventually eliminated by the immune system. In some cases it is possible to use the gene-transferring ability of viruses for gene therapy, i.e. to correct diseases caused by a defective gene by supplying a normal copy of the gene. Permanent genetic modification of entire animals can be accomplished in mice. The process begins by first genetically modifying a mouse embryonic stem cell. This is normally done by physically introducing into the cell a plasmid that can integrate into the genome by a process known as transfection.

During transfection the DNA integrates into the animal genome via non-homologous recombination. This altered cell is implanted into a blastocyst (an early embryo), which is then implanted into the uterus of a female mouse. A pup born from this blastocyst will be a chimera containing some cells derived from the unmodified cells of the blastocyst and some derived from the modified stem cell. By selecting mice whose germ cells (sperm- or egg-producing cells) developed from the modified cell and interbreeding them, pups that contain the genetic modification in all of their cells will be bom. Baylor College of Medicine currently has one of the largest transgenic mice facilities in the country.There has also been the genetically manipulated bull Herman with 55 offspring. A human gene was built into his genetic code while in an early embryonic stage in 1990. As a result, milk from his female descendants contained the human protein lactoferrine, which can be used as medicine, but it was present at such low levels that it was not profitable to extract them.

Insects can be genetically modified by injecting them with artificial transposons and a source of the enzyme transposes. The transposon, which can include new genes, is then integrated into the genome. Such insertions are unstable and can «jump-out» in the presence of transposase.

Transgenic fish are often created by microinjection. First generation is mosaic but several lines have been produced with the transgene incorporated into the germ line and transgenic fish can then be produced «naturally» by crossing male and female gametes. Although many types of transgenic fish exist (e.g. forincreased cold tolerance, antibiotic production, ornamental Glofishetc), the main focus had been on so-called growth hormone transgenic fish, mainly salmonids, tilapias and carps.

These fish have an over-production of growth hormone which results in increased growth rate from a few percent up to 10-40 times that of wild-types. In some species, final size is increased as well as growth rate providing an incentive for commercial breeders to farm such fish. However, ecological concerns over potential negative effects of transgenic fish in nature largely prevent the commencement of commercial production. A large and important portion of the research on transgenic fish today is therefore focused on environmental risk-assessment of GH-transgenic fish. Problems encountered and advances within this field are summarized in Devlin et al (2006).

Answer these questions.

1. What does the term «genetic modification» mean?

2. In what spheres of life can biotechnology be applied, using living organisms?

3. What does the term «transposon» mean?

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 7

 

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Biosphere

For modem ecologists, ecology can be studied at several levels: population level (individuals of the same species), biocoenosis level (or community of species), ecosystem level, and biosphere level.

The outer layer of the planet Earth can be divided into several compartments: the hydrosphere (or sphere of water), the lithosphere (or sphere of soils and rocks), and the atmosphere (or sphere of the air). The biosphere (or sphere of life), sometimes described as «the fourth envelope», is all living matter on the planet or that portion of the planet occupied by life.

It is thought that life first developed in the hydrosphere, at shallow depths, in the photic zone. Although recently a competing theory has emerged, that life originated around hydrothermal vents in the deeper ocean. Multicellular organisms then appeared and colonized benthic zones. Photosynthetic organisms gradually produced the chemically unstable oxygen-rich atmosphere that characterizes our planet. Terrestrial life developed later, after the ozone layer protecting living beings from UV rays had been formed.

Biodiversity is expressed at the ecological level (ecosystem), population level (intraspecific diversity), species level (specific diversity) and genetic level. Recently technology has allowed the discovery ofи - deep ocean vent communities. This remarkable ecological system is notdependent on sunlight but bacteria, utilizing the chemistry of the hot volcanic vents, are at the base of its food chain.The biosphere contains great quantities of elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Other elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and potassium, are also essential to life, yet are present in smaller amounts. At the ecosystem and biosphere levels, there is a continual recycling of all these elements, which alternate between the mineral and organic states.

For a better understanding of how the biosphere works, and various dysfunctions related to human activity, American scientists simulated the biosphere in a small-scale model, called Biosphere II.

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 8

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

Genetic Modification of Animals.

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using techniques in genetics generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA technology is the ability to combine DNA molecules from different sources into the one molecule in a test tube. Thus, the abilities or the phenotype of the organism, or the proteins it produces, can be altered through the modification of its genes.

Like bacteria and plants, animals can be genetically modified by viral infection. However, the genetic modification occurs only in those cells that become infected, and in most cases these cells are eventually eliminated by the immune system. In some cases it is possible to use the gene-transferring ability of viruses for gene therapy, i.e. to correct diseases caused by a defective gene by supplying a normal copy of the gene. Permanent genetic modification of entire animals can be accomplished in mice. The process begins by first genetically modifying a mouse embryonic stem cell. This is normally done by physically introducing into the cell a plasmid that can integrate into the genome by a process known as transfection.

During transfection the DNA integrates into the animal genome via non-homologous recombination. This altered cell is implanted into a blastocyst (an early embryo), which is then implanted into the uterus of a female mouse. A pup born from this blastocyst will be a chimera containing some cells derived from the unmodified cells of the blastocyst and some derived from the modified stem cell. By selecting mice whose germ cells (sperm- or egg-producing cells) developed from the modified cell and interbreeding them, pups that contain the genetic modification in all of their cells will be bom.

Insects can be genetically modified by injecting them with artificial transposons and a source of the enzyme transposase. The transposon, which can include new genes, is then integrated into the genome. Such insertions are unstable and can «jump-out» in the presence of transposase.

Transgenic fish are often created by microinjection. First generation is mosaic but several lines have been produced with the transgene incorporated into the germ line and transgenic fish can then be produced «naturally» by crossing male and female gametes. Although many types of transgenic fish exist (e.g. forincreased cold tolerance, antibiotic production, ornamental Glofishetc), the main focus had been on so-called growth hormone transgenic fish, mainly salmonids, tilapias and carps.

In some species, final size is increased as well as growth rate providing an incentive for commercial breeders to farm such fish. A large and important portion of the research on transgenic fish today is therefore focused on environmental risk-assessment of GH-transgenic fish. Problems encountered and advances within this field are summarized in Devlin et al (2006).

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 9

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

Biosphere

The term «Biosphere» was coined by Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky in the 1929. The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms, including man, and all organic matter that has not yet decomposed. Life evolved on earth during its early history between 4,5 and 3,8 billion years ago and the biosphere readily distinguishes our planet from all others in the solar system. The chemical reactions of life (e.g., photosynthesis-respiration, carbonate precipitation, etc.) have also imparted a strong signal on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, transforming the atmosphere from reducing conditions to and oxidizing environment with free oxygen. The biosphere is structured into a hierarchy known as the food chain whereby all life is dependent upon the first tier (i.e. mainly the primary producers that are capable of photosynthesis). Energy and mass are transferred from one level of the food chain to the next with an efficiency of about 10 %. All organisms are intrinsically linked to their physical environment and the relationship between an organism and its environment is the study of ecology. The biosphere can be divided into distinct ecosystems that represent the interactions between a group of organisms forming a trophic pyramid and the environment or habitat in which they live.

Links to other components:

Atmosphere: Life processes involve a vast number of chemical reactions some of which either extract or emit gases from and to the atmosphere. For example, photosynthesis consumes carbon dioxide and produces oxygen whereas respiration does the opposite. Other examples of biogenic gases in the atmosphere include methane, dimethylsulfide (DMS), nitrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, etc.).

Hydrosphere: Water is essential for all living organisms on the Earth and has played a key role in the evolution and sustenance of life on our planet. The biosphere as we know it would not exist without liquid water (for example, consider Mars). Water is also important for transport the soluble nutrients (phosphate and nitrate) that are needed for plant growth, and for transporting the waste products of life’s chemical reactions.

Geosphere: The geosphere and biosphere are intimately connected through soils, which consist of a mixture of air, mineral matter, organic matter, and water. In fact, one could consider soil as composed of all four spheres (atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere). Plant activity such as root growth and generation of organic acids are also important for the mechanical and chemical breakdown (weathering) of the geosphere.

Anthrosphere: Human population poses a threat to the biosphere by habitat destruction, especially by the destruction of tropical rainforests (deforestation). This process is driving thousands of species each year to extinction and reducing biological diversity

Answer the question: how is the biosphere connected with other components? Point out the information that was new to you.

Talking points

1. The biosphere as one of the Earth’s compartments.

2. The biosphere functioning.

3. The origin of the word «biosphere» and its brief history.

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 10

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is a word that describes the variety of living things. «Bio» (from a Greek word) refers to living and «diversity» refers to differences and variety. Living organisms express their diversity in hundreds of different ways — both external and visible and internal and invisible.

There are 3 kinds of biodiversity: variety of genes (poodles, beagles, and rottweilers are all dogs — but they’re not the same because their genes are different, it’s the difference in our genes that makes us all different), variety among species (scientists are grouped living things into distinct kinds of species) of ecosystems, coral reefs, wetlands, and tropical rain forests are all ecosystems, each one is different, with its own unique species living in it. Genes, species, and ecosystems working together make up our planet’s biodiversity.There is genetic diversity within a species, which results in the differences between you and your brothers and sisters and cousins and grandparents even though we all members of the human race - the species Homo Sapiens. There is evolutionary diversity, which has given rise to all the different species of animals and plants on this Earth and is genetic on a wider scale. This is also known as species diversity.

Each species is adapted - and sometimes highly specialized to survive in a particular environment or range of environments. Only the human species, through cultural and racial diversity and technology, seems to have adapted itself to survive in almost every environment on the Earth.Ecologists call the role a species plays in its environment a «niche» — like an actor playing the villain, the hero or the comic, in a play. Adaptation by different species to widely separated, but similar types of environments and niches, has led to convergent evolution, where organisms have a similar life style and appearance but are not related. The diversity is there despite superficial similarities. Lastly, there is cultural diversity, which people will argue is not part of biodiversity. But if you think of it as being the result of evolution and adaptation then it surely is. Cultural diversity helps the survival process by binding groups together and passing on traditions which help people live in their local environment. Many of the world’s different plants and animals are under severe threat of extinction. Many species are lost already.A species is said to be extinct when it has not been seen for over 50 years. Dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago but, in the last 50 years, more animals and plants have become extinct, because of hunting and loss of habitat. Globally, many hundreds of species will face extinction in a very few years without intensive conservation, education and environmental management and policy-making. Exotic species are animal and plant species that find themselves outside their native habitat. Scientists have recorded 1,75 million species on our planet and estimate another 5 to 100 million unrecorded species!

Answer these questions.

1. What language does the word «biodiversity» come from?

2. How many types of diversity do you know? Explain the difference between them.

3. Can each species adapt itself to survive in almost all environment on Earth? Prove your statement.

4. What does the author compare an ecological niche with? Why?

5. Is cultural diversity a part of biodiversity?

6. What is being done to stop the rapid extinction of the world’s non-human fauna and flora?

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 11

 

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Types of Aquatic Ecosystems

Aquatic ecosystems can be divided into two general types: marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems.Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71 % of the Earth’s surface and contain approximately 97 % of the planet’s water. Approximately 85 % of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Marine ecosystems can be divided into the following zones: oceanic (the relatively shallow part of the ocean that lies over the continental shelf); profundal (bottom or deep water); benthic (bottom substrates); intertidal (the area between high and low tides); estuaries; salt marshes; coral reefs; andhydrothermal vents (where chemosynthetic sulphur bacteria form the food base). Classes of organisms found in marine ecosystems include brown algae, dinoflagellates, corals, cephalopods, echinoderms, and sharks. Freshwater ecosystems cover 0,8 % of the Earth’s surface and contain 0,009 % of its total water. There are three basic types of freshwater ecosystems: lentic (slow-moving water, including pools, ponds, and lakes); lotic:(rapidly-moving water, for example streams and rivers); wetlands (areas where the soil is saturated or inundated for at least part of the time). Lake ecosystems can be divided into zones: pelagic (open offshore waters); profundal; littoral (nearshore shallow waters); and riparian (where the lake meets the sea). Wetlands are dominated by vascular plants that have adapted to saturated soil. Wetlands are the most productive natural ecosystems because of the proximity of water and soil, they take four basic forms. Swamps are a cross between forest and aquatic ecosystems, inhabited by woody species: conifers, hardwoods or shrubs. Bogs are characterized by acidic, peaty soils with little water movement and feature flora such as blueberries, orchids and carnivorous plants. Fens are similar to bogs, but with more water movement their soils are less acidic. The dominant plants are sedges and low shrubs. Wetlands are important because they act as natural sponges, absorbing water so it moves more slowly through the system. Wetlands are also well-designed to filter out pollution, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous. Mean while wetlands exceed other temperate habitats in that they produce as much oxygen, per area, as tropical rainforest.Besides, wetlands provide a natural nursery for many species of native plants and wildlife. Pond Ecosystem is a specific type of freshwater ecosystem that is largely based on the autotrophic algae which provide the base trophic level for all life in the area. It may have a scale of organisms from small bacteria to big creatures like water snakes, beetles, water bugs, and turtles.

Answer these questions.

1. What types of aquatic ecosystems do you know? Characterize briefly each one, pointing the difference between them out.

2. Name the zones of marine ecosystems and classes of organisms found there.

3. What types can freshwater ecosystems be divided into?

4. What determines the major zones in river ecosystems?

5. Why is pond ecosystem a specific type of freshwater ecosystems?

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 12

 

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Bioengineering

Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the mechanical and mathematical expertise of engineering with the medical expertise of physicians to help improve patient health care and the quality of life of healthy individuals. As a relatively new discipline, much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, covering an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. Examples of concrete applications of biomedical engineering are the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.

Generally, bioengineering may deal with either the medical or the agricultural fields. Because other engineering disciplines overlap bioengineering living organisms (e.g., prosthetics in mechanical engineering), the term can be applied more broadly to include food engineering and biotechnology. Biologi­cal engineering is called Bioengineering by some colleges and Biomedical engineering is called Bioengineering by others, and is a rapidly developing field with fluid categorization.

Biological engineers are similar to biologists in that they study living organisms. They are engineers because they have a practical design aim in mind — they use research to create usable tangible products. In general, biological engineers attempt to 1) mimic biological systems in order to create products or 2) modify and control biological systems so that they can replace, augment, or sustain chemical and mechanical processes.

Biomedical Engineering Training

An increasing number of universities with an engineering faculty now haw a biomedical engineering program or department from the undergraduate to the doctoral level. Traditionally, biomedical engineering has been an interdisciplinary field to specialize in after completing an undergraduate degree in a more traditional discipline of engineering or science, the reason for this being the requirement for biomedical engineers to be equally knowledgeable in engineering and the biological sciences. However, undergraduate programs of study combining these two fields of knowledge are becoming more widespread. As such, many students also pursue an undergraduate degree in biomedical engineering as a foundation for a continuing education in medical school.

Answerthesequestions.

1. What is biomedical engineering?

2. What does work in biomedical engineering consists of?

3. Where are biomedical engineers trained?

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 13

 

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Human anatomy structure

The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cells, the fundamental unit of life. At maturity, the estimated average number of cells in the body is given as 37.2 trillion. This number is stated to be of partial data and to be used as a starting point for further calculations. The number given is arrived at by totalling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The composition of the human body is made up of a number of certain elements including carbon, calcium and phosphorus. The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body consists of many interacting systems. The respiratory system consists of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air. The digestive system consists of the mouth including the tongue and teeth, esophagus, stomach, gut (gastrointestinal tract, small and large intestines, and rectum), as well as the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands. It converts food into small, nutritional, non-toxic molecules for distribution by the circulation to all tissues of the body, and excretes the unused residue. The integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The skin provides containment, structure, and protection for other organs, but it also serves as a major sensory interface with the outside world. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body The reproductive system consists of the gonads and the internal and external sex organs. The reproductive system produces gametes in each sex, a mechanism for their combination, and a nurturing environment for the first 9 months of development of the infant. The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels, which are also part of the lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the body to distinguish its own cells and tissues from alien cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as antibodies, cytokines, and toll-like receptors, among many others. The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolize lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid). The endocrine system consists of the principal endocrine glands: the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids , and gonads, but nearly all organs and tissues produce specific endocrine hormones as well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function. There is also the exocrine system.

Find Russian equivalents of these expressions among the words and word combinations of the words/expressions: the thorax and, abdomen, the human skeleton, pancreas, thymus, gonads, kidneys, skin, the integumentary system.

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 14

 

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Biological Diversity

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity is the sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on the Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live. Scientists estimate that upwards of 10 million and some suggest more than 100 million of different species inhabit the Earth. Each species is adapted to its unique niche in the environment, from the peaks of mountains to the depths of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and from polar ice caps to tropical rain forests.

Biodiversity underlies everything from food production to medical research. Humans of the world overuse at least 40,000 species of plants and animals on a daily basis. Many people around the world still depend on wild species for some or all of their food, shelter, and clothing.

All of our domesticated plants and animals came from wild-living ancestral species. Close to 40 percent of the pharmaceuticals used in the United States are either based on or synthesized from natural compounds found in plants, microorganisms.

The array of living organisms found in a particular environment together with the physical and environmental factors them is called an ecosystem. Healthy ecosystems are vital to life: they regulate many of the chemical and climatic systems that make available clean air and water and plentiful oxygen. Forests, for example, regulate the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis process by which plants convert energy from sunlight into carbohydratecontrol rainfall and soil erosion.

Ecosystems, in turn, depend on the continued health and vitality of the individual organisms that compose them. Removing just one species from an ecosystem can prevent the ecosystem from operating optimally.

Perhaps the greatest value of biodiversity is yet unknown. Scientists have discovered and named only 1.75 million species than 20 percent of those are estimated to exist. And of those identified fraction has been examined for potential medicinal, agriculture or industrial value. Much of the Earth’s great biodiversity is rapidly disappearing before we know what is missing.

Most biologists agree that life on Earth is now faced with the most severe extinction episode since the event drove the dinosaurs to extinction 65 million years ago. Species of plants animals, fungi, and microscopic organisms such as bacteria are being rates that biologists estimate that three species go extinct every hour. Scientists around the world are cataloging and studying global biodiversity in hopes that they might better understand it, or at least slow the rate of loss.

Decide whether these statements are true or false (T/F):

1. Biodiversity or Biological Diversity is the sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on the Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live.

2. Each species is not adapted to its unique niche in the environment.

3. Humans of the world overuse at least 100,000 species of plants and animals on a daily basis.

4. Species of plants animals, fungi, and microscopic organisms such as bacteria are being rates that biologists estimate that three species go extinct every hour.

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 15

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2.

Ecological Niche

The concept of the ecological niche is an important one; it helps us to understand how organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other. Theconcept is described by Odum as follows:

The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives butalso on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism’s address», and the niche is its «profession», biologically speaking.Here are a few examples to help you understand what we mean when we (ecologists) use the term «ecological niche»:

Oak trees live in oak woodlands; that’s common sense. What do oak trees do? If you can answer that question you know the oak trees«profession» or its ecological niche. Perhaps you think that oak trees just •stand there looking pretty and not doing very much, but think about it.

Oak trees:

1) absorb sunlight by photosynthesis;

2) absorb water and mineral salts from the soil;

3) provide shelter for many animals and other plants;

4) act as a support for creeping plants;

5) serve as a source of food for animals;

6) cover the ground with their dead leaves in the autumn.

These six things are the «profession» or ecological niche of the oak tree; you can think of it as being a kind of job description. If the oak trees were cut down or destroyed by fire or storms they would no longer be doing their job and this would have a disastrous effect on all the other organisms living in the same habitat.

Hedgehogs in the garden also have an ecological niche. They rummage about in the flowerbeds eating a variety of insects and other invertebrates which live underneath the dead leaves and twigs in the flowerbeds. That is their profession. They are covered in sharp spines which protect them from predators, so being caught and eaten is not a part of their job description. However, hedgehogs cannot groom themselves properly. All those spines on their backs make a superb environment or microhabitat for fleas and ticks.

Hedgehogs put nitrogen back into the soil when they urinate! I don’t know how much nitrogen they put into the soil but it probably helps the plants if they do. I think that they eat my slugs, so that reduces the effect which slugs have on the flowers.

So the idea of an ecological niche is very simple. You just need to know where the animal or plant lives and what it does.

 

Give the author’s definition of the ecological niche. Mention the comparison of the author and your opinion on the reasons.Prove the importance of the concept of the ecological niche. Illustrate it in some examples:

a) determine the oak trees’ habitat and profession;

b) define the ecological niche of hedgehogs.

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 16

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An Ecosystem Engineer

An ecosystem engineer is an organism that creates, modifies and maintains habitats. Most organisms alter their physical environments in some way, so the term ecosystem engineer is applied only to certain key species that have a profound and wide-ranging influence, changing the distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in their locality. Scientists describe two types of ecosystem engineers.

Autogenic engineers modify the environment using 1 heir own physical struc­tures. Trees and corals are two important examples.

Allogenic engineers transform living or non-living material from one form to another using mechanical or other means. The beaver is second only to humans in this capacity.

The beaver engineers its environment in several ways, most obviously by cutting trees and building dams, but the building of lodges and canals is also important.

It is the only species besides humans that is capable of cutting down mature trees. Beaver activity changes the forest structure and diversity of tree species.

The animal will use a wide range of trees, but when given a choice will cut its preferred foods, particularly poplar and willow. Willows and maples send up shoots from the cut stumps, but poplars and some other tux- species do not.

Beavers often clear-cut the areas around their ponds. In other case;mature trees may become replaced by once undergrowth of willow other shoots. Other tree species become scarce and may be replaced by ones that the leaver does not favor, such as ash. Other timber along the watercourse may he killed by flooding.

Dam-building changes the flow of water through the stream. Beaver re­quire deep slow-moving water for storing food, constructing lodges and mov­ing around safely. This is why they build dams. The still water in a beaver pond attracts species normally associated with lakes rather than streams, while species dependent on fast water die out or move elsewhere.

 

Answer these questions:

1. What organisms can be classified as ecosystem engineers?

2. How many types of ecosystem engineers exist? Characterize each one.

3. What type of ecosystem engineers does the beaver refer to? Why?

4. What foods are its preferred ones? What does this preference lead to?

5. How many trees can a family of six can consume in one year?

6. How does dam-building change the flow of water through the stream?

 

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 17

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The Ecosystem Concept

Ecosystems can be characterized and mapped as physiognomic ecological units, originally developed for vegetation classification. Each vegetation structure reflects ecological conditions. Each ecosystem thus defined, hosts assemblages of species with survival strategies that can survive under its conditions. This principle allows us to map ecosystems using the UNESCO physiognomic ecological classification system, the Land Cover Classification Systems (LCCS) developed by the FAO and the United States National Vegetation Classification system (USNVC). The size and scale of an ecosystem can vary widely. It may be a whole forest, a community of bacteria and algae in a drop of water, or even the geobiosphere itself. As most of these borders are not rigid, ecosystems tend to blend intoeach other. As a result, the whole earth can be seen as a single ecosystem, lull- a lake can be divided into several ecosystems, depending on the scaleused.Early conceptions of this unit showed a structured functional unit in equilibrium of energy and matter flows between its constituent elements. Others considered this vision limited, and preferred to understand an ecosystem in terms of cybernetics. From this point of view an ecological system is a functional dynamic organization, or what was also called «steady state». Steady state is understood as the phase of an ecological system's evolution when the organisms are «balanced» with each other and their environment. This balance is achieved or «regulated» through various types of interactions, such as predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, competition, and amensalism. Introduction of new elements, whether abiotic or biotic, into in ecosystem tend to have a disruptive effect. In some cases, this can lead to ecological collapse and the death of many native species. The branch of ecology that gave rise to this view has become known as systems ecology. Under this deterministic vision, the abstract notion of ecological health attempts to measure the robustness and recovery capacity for an ecosystem; that is, how far the ecosystem is away from steady state.

Ecosystems are often classified by reference to the biotopes concerned. The following ecosystems may be defined: As continental ecosystems, such as forest ecosystems, meadow ecosystems such as steppes or savannas), or agro-ecosystemsAs ecosystems of inland waters, such as lentic ecosystems such as lakes or ponds; or lotic ecosystems such as riversAs oceanic ecosystems.Another classification can be done by reference to its communities, such as in the case of a human ecosystem.

Decide whether these statements are true or false (T/F).

1. Components and processes of an ecosystem govern the behavior of some defined subset of the biosphere.

2. The ecosystem is composed of two entities, the entirety of life, the biotope and the medium that life exists in, the biocoenosis.

3. Energy from the sun is ultimately lost to the system as waste heat.

4. Decomposition is the first stage of biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

5. The Convention on Biological Diversity was ratified by more than 75 countries.

6. The whole earth can be seen as a single ecosystem.

 

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Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Билет № 18

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How Ecosystems Work

The living portion of an ecosystem is best described in terms of feeding levels known as trophic levels. Green plants make up the first trophic level and are known as primary producers. Plants are able to convert energy from the sun into food in a process known as photosynthesis. In the second trophic level, the primary consumers — known as herbivores — are animals and insects that obtain their energy solely by eating the green plants. The third trophic level is composed of the secondary consumers, flesh-eating or carnivorous animals that feed on herbivores. At the fourth level are the tertiary consumers, carnivores that feed on other carnivores. Finally, the fifth trophic level consists of the decomposers, organisms such as fungi and bacteria that break down dead or dying matter into nutrients that can be used again.Some or all of these trophic levels combine to form what






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